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Synergistic antitumoral efficacy of a novel replicative adenovirus SG611-PDCD5 and daunorubicin in human leukemic cells

Authors Zhou YL, Yao QM, Zhou J, Chang Y, Li JL, Wang YZ, Wu HP, Chen YH, Liu YR, Huang XJ, Ruan GR

Received 11 March 2018

Accepted for publication 4 July 2018

Published 23 August 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 5121—5132


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Takuya Aoki

Ya-Lan Zhou,1 Qiu-Mei Yao,1 Jiao Zhou,1 Yan Chang,1 Jin-Lan Li,1 Ya-Zhe Wang,1 Hong-Ping Wu,2 Yu-Hong Chen,1 Yan-Rong Liu,1 Xiao-Jun Huang,1 Guo-Rui Ruan1

1Beijing Key Laboratory of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Peking University People’s Hospital and Institute of Hematology, Beijing, China; 2Laboratory of Viral and Gene Therapy, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgical Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China

Background: Daunorubicin is a traditional chemotherapeutic agent that plays a pivotal role in leukemia therapy. However, the dose-related toxicity remains a considerable challenge. The apoptosis-regulating gene, PDCD5, is downregulated in various tumors, including leukemias, and may provide a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of leukemia. The purpose of this study was to construct a triple-regulated oncolytic adenovirus carrying a PDCD5 gene expression cassette (SG611-PDCD5) and explore the combined antitumor efficacy of SG611-PDCD5 in combination with low dose daunorubicin on leukemic cells.
Materials and methods: A variety of leukemic cell lines, including K562, MEG-01, KG-1a, HL-60, SUP-B15, and BV-173, were cultured according to the providers’ instructions. The insertion and orientation of all recombined plasmids were confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion and PCR. The tumor-selective replication of the constructed conditionally replicating SG611-PDCD5 and its antitumor efficacy in combination with daunorubicin were characterized in leukemic cell lines in vitro and in a nude mouse xenograft model. Cell viability was detected using cell-counting kit-8. Apoptosis was detected in whole living cells using flow cytometry and in paraffin-embedded tumor tissues using a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay.
Results: The triple-regulated CRAd carrying SG611-PDCD5 and nude mouse xenograft models of K562 cells were successfully constructed. In vitro treatment with SG611-PDCD5 in combination with low-dose daunorubicin elicited more potent anti-proliferative and proapoptotic effects in leukemic cells in a dose-dependent manner. The Chou-Talalay analysis revealed synergistic anti-proliferative effects in all of the above cell lines. In the nude mice xenograft model, the tumor size in the control, daunorubicin, SG611-PDCD5, and combined treatment groups on day 10 were 170.1±47.8, 111.9±81.1, 60.7±12.3, and 33.2±17.5 mm3, respectively (all P<0.05). The results of the TUNEL assay showed significantly more apoptotic cells in the SG611-PDCD5 plus daunorubicin group than in the SG611-PDCD5 or daunorubicin groups alone (25±0.82, 12.5±2.27, and 7.8±2.67 apoptotic cells/field, respectively) (P<0.05).
Conclusion: The findings suggest that combined treatment with SG611-PDCD5 and daunorubicin may be a promising strategy for enhancing chemosensitivity and thus lowering the dose-related toxicity of daunorubicin in leukemia therapy.

Keywords: PDCD5 gene, oncolytic adenovirus, leukemia, gene therapy

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