Back to Journals » OncoTargets and Therapy » Volume 9

Superiority of helical tomotherapy on liver sparing and dose escalation in hepatocellular carcinoma: a comparison study of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy

Authors Zhao Q, Wang R, Zhu J, Jin L, Zhu K, Xu X, Feng R, Jiang S, Qi Z, Yin Y

Received 22 February 2016

Accepted for publication 25 April 2016

Published 24 June 2016 Volume 2016:9 Pages 3807—3813


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Jia Fan

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Jianmin Xu

Qianqian Zhao,1,2 Renben Wang,2 Jian Zhu,2 Linzhi Jin,1,2 Kunli Zhu,2 Xiaoqing Xu,2 Rui Feng,2 Shumei Jiang,2 Zhonghua Qi,1,2 Yong Yin2

1School of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China

Background and purpose: To compare the difference of liver sparing and dose escalation between three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and helical tomotherapy (HT) for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Patients and methods: Sixteen unresectable HCC patients were enrolled in this study. First, some evaluation factors of 3DCRT, IMRT, and HT plans were calculated with prescription dose at 50 Gy/25 fractions. Then, the doses were increased using HT or IMRT independently until either the plans reached 70 Gy or any normal tissue reached the dose limit according to quantitative analysis of normal tissue effects in the clinic criteria.
Results: The conformal index of 3DCRT was lower than that of IMRT (P<0.001) or HT (P<0.001), and the homogeneity index of 3DCRT was higher than that of IMRT (P<0.001) or HT (P<0.001). HT took the longest treatment time (P<0.001). For V50% (fraction of normal liver treated to at least 50% of the isocenter dose) of the normal liver, there was a significant difference: 3DCRT > IMRT > HT (P<0.001). HT had a lower Dmean (mean dose) and V20 (Vn, the percentage of organ volume receiving ≥n Gy) of liver compared with 3DCRT (P=0.005 and P=0.005, respectively) or IMRT (P=0.508 and P=0.007, respectively). Dmean of nontarget normal liver and V30 of liver were higher for 3DCRT than IMRT (P=0.005 and P=0.005, respectively) or HT (P=0.005 and P=0.005, respectively). Seven patients in IMRT (43.75%) and nine patients in HT (56.25%) reached the isodose 70 Gy, meeting the dose limit of the organs at risk.
Conclusion: HT may provide significantly better liver sparing and allow more patients to achieve higher prescription dose in HCC radiotherapy.

hepatocellular carcinoma, radiotherapy, radiation-induced liver disease, liver sparing

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]