Stress reactivity and emotion in premenstrual syndrome
Authors Liu Q, Wang Y, van Heck CH, Qiao W
Received 9 January 2017
Accepted for publication 4 May 2017
Published 16 June 2017 Volume 2017:13 Pages 1597—1602
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Prof. Dr. Roumen Kirov
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Professor Wai Kwong Tang
Qing Liu,1 Yongshun Wang,2 Cornelis Hermanus van Heck,3 Wei Qiao4
1Department of Nuclear Medicine and Medical PET Center, The Second Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 2School of Physical Education and Sport, Huaqiao University, Xiamen, People’s Republic of China; 3DCC, Donders Institute for Neuroscience and Neurocognition, Arnhem, the Netherlands; 4Department of Physical Education, Xiamen Institute of Technology, Xiamen, People’s Republic of China
Background: Hormone level fluctuation across the menstrual cycle causes women to experience negative emotions and also affects their mood regulation and stress sensitivity. However, the stress reactivity and emotional variations in women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS), who are especially sensitive to the variations in hormone cycles, have not been explained.
Methods: The present study used an electroencephalogram (EEG) stress evaluation test, a physiology stress evaluation test, and the positive affect and negative affect scale (PANAS) to evaluate the stress reactivity pattern and emotional state of women with PMS.
Results: The results showed that women with PMS had higher negative affect and lower positive affect compared with controls. Moreover, under stressful conditions, the women with PMS had a higher alpha activity and a lower respiration rate than the controls. The differences in stress reactivity and emotional states between women with PMS and controls were based on a covariant analysis with menstrual cycle (luteal and follicular phases) as the covariate.
Conclusion: The results demonstrated that, compared with controls, women suffering from PMS have a continuous abnormality in emotional state and stress reactivity, which was independent of the menstrual cycle.
Keywords: premenstrual syndrome, stress reactivity, emotion, EEG stress evaluation test, physiology stress evaluation test
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