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Sound-stress-induced altered nociceptive behaviors are associated with increased spinal CRFR2 gene expression in a rat model of burn injury

Authors Sosanya NM, Trevino AV, Chavez RL, Christy RJ, Cheppudira BP

Received 15 June 2017

Accepted for publication 15 July 2017

Published 1 September 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 2135—2145

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S144055

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Minal Joshi

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Katherine Hanlon

Natasha M Sosanya, Alex V Trevino, Roger L Chavez, Robert J Christy, Bopaiah P Cheppudira

United States Army Institute of Surgical Research, San Antonio Military Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, TX, USA

Abstract:
Sound stress (SS) elicits behavioral changes, including pain behaviors. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying SS-induced pain behaviors remain to be explored. The current study examined the effects of SS on nociceptive behaviors and changes in expression of the spinal corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system in male Sprague Dawley rats with and without thermal pain. We also studied the effects of SS on plasma corticosterone and fecal output. Rats were exposed to 3 days of SS protocol (n = 12/group). Changes in nociceptive behaviors were assessed using thermal and mechanical pain tests. Following the induction of SS, a subgroup of rats (n = 6/group) was inflicted with thermal injury and on day 14 postburn nociceptive behaviors were reassessed. Spinal CRF receptor mRNA expression was analyzed by semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, plasma corticosterone and spinal CRF concentrations were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Increased defecation was observed in SS rats. SS produced transient mechanical allodynia in naive rats, whereas it exacerbated thermal pain in thermally injured rats. Spinal CRFR2 mRNA expression was unaffected by stress or thermal injury alone, but their combined effect significantly increased its expression. SS had no effect on plasma corticosterone and spinal CRF protein in postburn rats. To conclude, SS is capable of exacerbating postburn thermal pain, which is linked to increased CRFR2 gene expression in the spinal cord. Future studies have to delineate whether attenuation of CRFR2 signaling at the spinal level prevents stress-induced exacerbation of burn pain.

Keywords: sound stress, corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-2, thermal injury, corticosterone, thermal pain, mechanical pain

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