Single dose oral midazolam for minor emergency department procedures in children: a retrospective cohort study
Authors Neuman G, Swed Tobia R, Koren L, Leiba R, Shavit I
Received 4 November 2017
Accepted for publication 18 December 2017
Published 12 February 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 319—324
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Erica Wegrzyn
Gal Neuman,1,* Rana Swed Tobia,2,* Liron Koren,3 Ronit Leiba,4 Itai Shavit5
1Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology Unit, 2Department of Pediatrics, Ruth Children’s Hospital, Rambam Health Care Campus, 3Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion – Institute of Technology, 4Quality of Care Unit, 5Emergency Department, Ruth Children’s Hospital, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Background: In the pediatric emergency department, patients are commonly treated with a single dose of oral midazolam for minor procedures. We sought to evaluate the effect of this treatment on procedure completion rates.
Methods: We conducted a single-center retrospective cohort study of all patients who were treated with pre-procedure oral midazolam between January 2011 and June 2016. The primary outcome was the procedure completion rate.
Results: During the study period, 1,504 patients were treated with oral midazolam as per department protocol; 1,467 received midazolam and 37 declined midazolam. Oral midazolam was used in 14 different types of emergency department procedures. The procedure completion rates in the treatment and non-treatment groups were 1,402/1,467 (95.6%) and 24/37 (64.8%), respectively (difference 30.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 17.3%–46.8%); p<0.0001. Treatment group patients had procedure completion rates of 25/33 (75.8%), 165/188 (87.8%%), 1,154/1,187 (97.2%), and 58/59 (98.3%), in the less than 0.3 mg/kg group, 0.3 to less than 0.5 mg/kg group, 0.5 to less than 0.7 mg/kg group, and 0.7 to less than 0.9 mg/kg group, respectively. Multivariate regression did not demonstrate an association between sex, ethnicity, dosage of 0.5 mg/kg or greater, type of procedure, and failure to complete procedure. Severe adverse events were not recorded. A dose of less than 0.3 mg/kg was significantly associated with an increased risk of failure to complete a procedure (adjusted odds ratio 8.34, 95% CI 3.32–20.9; p<0.0001).
Conclusion: The findings suggest that oral midazolam in a single dose of 0.5 mg/kg or greater is associated with successful completion of minor pediatric procedures.
Keywords: midazolam, oral, procedures, child, emergency
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