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Sickle cell retinopathy: improving care with a multidisciplinary approach

Authors Menaa F, Khan BA, Uzair B, Menaa A

Received 11 April 2017

Accepted for publication 20 July 2017

Published 30 August 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 335—346

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/JMDH.S90630

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser

Farid Menaa,1,2 Barkat Ali Khan,3 Bushra Uzair,4 Abder Menaa2

1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Nanomedicine, California Innovations Corporation, San Diego, CA, USA; 2Departments of Clinical Medicine and Laser Therapy, Centre Médical des Guittières, Saint-Philbert-de-Grand-Lieu, Loire-Atlantique, France; 3Faculty of Pharmacy and Alternative Medicine, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, 4Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan

Abstract: Sickle cell retinopathy (SCR) is the most representative ophthalmologic complication of sickle cell disease (SCD), a hemoglobinopathy affecting both adults and children. SCR presents a wide spectrum of manifestations and may even lead to irreversible vision loss if not properly diagnosed and treated at the earliest. Over the past decade, multidisciplinary research developments have focused upon systemic, genetic, and ocular risk factors of SCR, enabling the clinician to better diagnose and manage these patients. In addition, newer imaging and testing modalities, such as spectral domain-optical coherence tomography angiography, have resulted in the detection of subclinical retinopathy related to SCD. Innovative therapy includes intravitreal injection of an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (eg, Lucentis® [ranibizumab] or Eylea® [aflibercept]) which appears comparatively safe and efficient, and may be combined with laser photocoagulation (LPC) for proliferative SCR. The effect of LPC alone does not significantly lead to the regression of advanced SCR, although it helps in avoiding hemorrhage and sight loss. This comprehensive article is based on 10-years retrospective (2007–2017) studies. It aims to present advances and recommendations in SCR theranostics while pointing out the requirement of combinatorial approaches for better management of SCR patients. To reach this goal, we identified and analyzed randomized original and review articles, clinical trials, non-randomized intervention studies, and observational studies using specified keywords in various databases (eg, Medline, Embase, Cochrane, ClinicalTrials.gov).

Keywords: sickle cell disease, retinopathy, medicine practice, translational medicine, personalized medicine, theranostics, omics, innovations, combinatorial clinical approaches
 

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