School bus accommodation-relaxing skiascopy
Authors Arnold AW, Arnold SL, Sprano JH, Arnold RW
Received 11 June 2019
Accepted for publication 22 August 2019
Published 8 October 2019 Volume 2019:13 Pages 1841—1851
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Cristina Weinberg
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
Andrew W Arnold,1 Stephanie L Arnold,1 Jacob H Sprano,2 Robert W Arnold3
1Pacific Northwest University College of Osteopathic Medicine, Yakima, WA, USA; 2Kansas City University of Osteopathic Medicine, Kansas City, MO, USA; 3Alaska Blind Child Discovery, Alaska Children’s Eye & Strabismus, Anchorage, AK, USA
Correspondence: Robert W Arnold
Alaska Blind Child Discovery, Alaska Children’s Eye & Strabismus, 3500 Latouche #280, Anchorage, AK 99508, USA
Tel +1 907 561 1917
Fax +1 907 563 5373
Objective: Accurate estimation of hyperopia and astigmatism is challenging in delayed children. Conventional skiascopy holds rows of increasing power ± lenses vertically in front of one eye. The school bus accommodation-relaxing skiascopy (SBA-RS) design holds child-friendly, lenses +1 to +10D horizontally so that a higher power fogs the nontested eye-relaxing accommodation without cycloplegia.
Methods: Design: Evaluation of diagnostic test. Subjects: Patients undergoing comprehensive eye examination in a pediatric ophthalmology practice. Cycloplegic (cyclopentolate 1%) retinoscopy was compared to dry SBA-RS and Retinomax (Righton, Japan) during pediatric eye examinations. Outcome measures: correlations, Chi-square and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.
Results: Of 470 patients with a median age 6 years, 238 were under the age of 60 months and 110 had developmental delays. For those with cycloplegic spherical equivalent hyperopia over 0.7 D, median (90% CI) value for retinoscopy was +2.63 D (+0.75, +6.88), for SBA-RS was +2.50 D (+0.50, +6.75) and less for 184 with Retinomax +1.88 D (−1.56, +6.13) but similar despite delays. Astigmatic cylinder SBA-RS +1.50 D (+0.25, +4.00) lagged retinoscopy +1.75 D (+0.75,+4.50) but Retinomax was greater +2.00 D (+0.25, +4.64). Cycloplegic refractive components such as spherical equivalent, cylinder, and J0 and J45 power vectors correlated highly and were near unity with SBA-RS and Retinomax with the latter deviating greater. SBA-RS screened for amblyopia risk factors up to 92% sensitive and 94% specific.
Conclusion: Accommodation-relaxing horizontal skiascopy very precisely estimates astigmatism power and axis and only lags cycloplegic refraction by about 0.15D in hyperopic patients fairly independent of neurodevelopmental delay. This technique can quickly estimate refraction even in delayed patients potentially reducing some need for cycloplegia.
Clinical Trials Registry: NCT03668067.
Keywords: hyperopia, retinoscopy, cycloplegia, skiascopy
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