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Robotic-Assisted Spine Surgery: History, Efficacy, Cost, And Future Trends

Authors D'Souza M, Gendreau J, Feng A, Kim LH, Ho AL, Veeravagu A

Received 20 May 2019

Accepted for publication 14 October 2019

Published 7 November 2019 Volume 2019:6 Pages 9—23


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Masoud Azodi

Marissa D’Souza,1 Julian Gendreau,1 Austin Feng,2 Lily H Kim,2 Allen L Ho,2 Anand Veeravagu2

1Mercer University School of Medicine, Macon, GA, USA; 2Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA

Correspondence: Anand Veeravagu
Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, R281, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Tel +1650 723-6469

Abstract: Robot-assisted spine surgery has recently emerged as a viable tool to enable less invasive and higher precision surgery. The first-ever spine robot, the SpineAssist (Mazor Robotics Ltd., Caesarea, Israel), gained FDA approval in 2004. With its ability to provide real-time intraoperative navigation and rigid stereotaxy, robotic-assisted surgery has the potential to increase accuracy while decreasing radiation exposure, complication rates, operative time, and recovery time. Currently, robotic assistance is mainly restricted to spinal fusion and instrumentation procedures, but recent studies have demonstrated its use in increasingly complex procedures such as spinal tumor resections and ablations, vertebroplasties, and deformity correction. However, robots do require high initial costs and training, and thus, require justification for their incorporation into common practice. In this review, we discuss the history of spinal robots along as well as currently available systems. We then examine the literature to evaluate accuracy, operative time, complications, radiation exposure, and costs – comparing robotic-assisted to traditional fluoroscopy-assisted freehand approaches. Finally, we consider future applications for robots in spine surgery.

Keywords: renaissance, robot-assisted surgery, ROSA®, robotic spine surgery, SpineaAssist®, Mazor X®, computer assisted navigation, robotic navigation

Corrigendum for this paper has been published

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