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Risk Factors for Anemia Among Pregnant Women Attending the Antenatal Care Unit in Selected Jigjiga Public Health Facilities, Somali Region, East Ethiopia 2019: Unmatched Case–Control Study

Authors Osman MO, Nour TY, Bashir HM, Roble AK, Nur AM, Abdilahi AO

Received 6 May 2020

Accepted for publication 13 July 2020

Published 10 August 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 769—777


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser

Mohamed Omar Osman,1 Tahir Yousuf Nour,1 Hodan Mahamed Bashir,2 Abdurahman Kedir Roble,3 Abdikani Mawlid Nur,1 Abdilahi Omer Abdilahi1

1Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Science, Jigjiga University, Jigjiga, Ethiopia; 2Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Dryland Agriculture, Jigjiga University, Jigjiga, Ethiopia; 3Department of Midwifery, College of Medicine and Health Science, Jigjiga University, Jigjiga, Ethiopia

Correspondence: Mohamed Omar Osman P.O.BOX: 1020, Jigjiga, Ethiopia
Tel +251921424748
Fax +251 25 775 5976
Email [email protected]

Background: Anemia is a significant public health concern in many developing countries, particularly during pregnancy, and it has adverse effects on mother and fetus/baby.
Objective: To determine the factors associated with anemia among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Jigjiga public health facilities, Somali Region, East Ethiopia.
Methods: An institution-based unmatched case–control study was conducted. The sample size was 228 pregnant women; comprising 114 presenting with anemia and 114 controls. Hemoglobin levels were measured using a portable heme analyzer. Socio-demographic, dietary, medical history, and nutrition-related data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Data were entered into Epidata 3.1 and exported to Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.0 for cleaning and analyses. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed and statistical significance was considered at a level of p< 0.05.
Results: Three predictors of anemia among pregnant women were identified in this study. An inadequate intake of red meat (i.e. those who consumed red meat 1– 2 times a month [AOR=7.245; 95% CI=(2.007– 26.151)] or not at all [AOR=8.690; 95% CI=(1.795– 42.072)]), and insufficient consumption of green vegetables (i.e. 1– 2 times a week [AOR=2.970; 95% CI=(1.012– 8.716)] or 1– 2 times a month [AOR=8.057; 95% CI=(2.358– 27.526)]) were associated with anemia. Also, having a mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) of less than 23 cm was strongly associated [AOR=16.432; 95% CI= (5.240– 51.526)] with anemia.
Conclusion: This study revealed three key factors to be associated with anemia among pregnant women in Jigjiga Town, namely reduced intake of red meat and green vegetables, and low MUAC. Interventions including nutrition counselling and enrolling pregnant women with low nutritional status in nutritional programs should be the core components of anemia control strategies, needed to address the high prevalence of anemia during pregnancy in developing countries.

Keywords: risk factors, anemia, pregnant women, antenatal care, Jigjiga Town

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