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Risk factors associated with postoperative pain and discomfort in oculoplastic surgery with general anesthesia: a prospective study

Authors Ye H, Chen R, Lian X, Huang J, Mao Y, Lu R, Ai S, Ma W, Lin J, Yang H, Guo W

Received 4 November 2017

Accepted for publication 10 January 2018

Published 21 February 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 407—415

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S156104

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Minal Joshi

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr E Alfonso Romero-Sandoval


Huijing Ye,1* Rongxin Chen,1* Xiufen Lian,1* Jingxia Huang,2 Yuxiang Mao,1 Rong Lu,1 Siming Ai,1 Wenfang Ma,1 Jingyi Lin,2 Huasheng Yang,1 Wenjun Guo2

1Department of Orbital Diseases and Ocular Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060, China; 2Department of Anesthesia, State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060, China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Purpose: To evaluate patient pain and discomfort following oculoplastic surgery performed under general anesthesia and to assess key factors associated with postoperative pain and discomfort.
Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was conducted among 212 consecutive patients who underwent oculoplastic surgery performed under general anesthesia. The patients were assessed according to quantified levels of pain and discomfort postoperatively. Analgesic requests were recorded, and responses were statistically analyzed.
Results:
Pain and discomfort after oculoplastic surgery under general anesthesia were reported by 32.1% and 28.3% of the patients, respectively; 2.8% of the patients requested analgesic medication within 18 hours after surgery. The patients who underwent orbital decompression, secondary orbital implantation, and orbital fracture repair were more likely to develop significant postoperative pain and discomfort (P<0.001), and the patients who underwent enucleation/evisceration during orbital implantation were more likely to develop postoperative discomfort (P<0.001). The predictors of pain were smoking history, prior surgery on the operative eye, and anxiety (P<0.05), and the predictor of discomfort was anxiety (P<0.05).
Conclusion:
Patients undergoing oculoplastic surgery tend to experience postoperative pain and discomfort. Anxiety is a risk factor for both postoperative pain and discomfort, while smoking history and prior surgery on the operative eye may be associated with postoperative pain.

Keywords:
pain level, discomfort level, ophthalmic surgery, related factors, prevalence, Chinese

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