Review of oral cholera vaccines: efficacy in young children
Cristina Masuet Aumatell1, JM Ramon Torrell1, Jane N Zuckerman2
1International Health Centre, Preventive Medicine Department, Bellvitge Hospital, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; 2World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Reference, Research and Training in Travel Medicine, University College London Medical School, London, UK
Background: Young children are one of the most vulnerable groups who may be infected with cholera. The following literature review of the efficacy of the currently available cholera vaccines provides a clear evidence base for the clinical administration of cholera vaccine, particularly in an epidemic situation.
Aim: To assess the efficacy of oral cholera vaccines in preventing cases of cholera in young children.
Methods: A systematic literature review was undertaken for the period 1983 to 2011 using PubMed and the search terms “oral cholera vaccines,” “children,” and “efficacy,” limited to “clinical trials” and “human studies”.
Results: Oral cholera vaccine provides an acceptable level of protection in young children, with the level of protection being greater at 12 or 24 months following immunization.
Conclusions: Children exposed to a potential risk of cholera are recommended to be vaccinated with an oral cholera vaccine, irrespective of whether its constituents include the B subunit.
Keywords: efficacy, oral cholera vaccine, children