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Retention in Care and Health Outcomes of HIV-Exposed Infants in a Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) Cohort in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors Alamdo AG, King EJ

Received 12 October 2020

Accepted for publication 19 January 2021

Published 10 February 2021 Volume 2021:13 Pages 171—179


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Bassel Sawaya

Andamlak Gizaw Alamdo,1 Elizabeth J King2

1Department of Public Health, St. Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

Correspondence: Andamlak Gizaw Alamdo
Department of Public Health, St. Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, PO Box 1271, Swaziland Street, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Tel +251 912038993

Purpose: Currently, a high number of mother–infant cohorts do not complete the full cascade of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services in Ethiopia. This study examined the level of HIV-exposed infants discharged negative and rate of loss to follow-up (LTFU) in a mother–infant cohort in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in selected public health facilities of Addis Ababa. Data were abstracted from infant and mother registration cards and mother–infant cohort follow-up charts. The proportion of HIV-exposed infants discharged negative was examined. LTFU was then analyzed and a Kaplan–Meier survival curve was used to estimate Cumulative probability of LTFU among the different groups. Cox proportional hazard model was used to determine significant factors associated with LTFU.
Results: Three hundred fifty six mother–infant pairs were included in this study. The LTFU rate at the end of follow-up period was of 13.2% (95% CI= 9.83– 17.6%) and an overall HIV transmission rate of 0.61% was observed. Younger women (AHR=0.90, 95% CI = 0.83– 0.97) and those who were newly diagnosed at the time of entry to PMTCT (AHR=0.35, 95% CI = 0.18– 0.68) were less likely to complete PMTCT.
Conclusion: High retention to PMTCT services and low mother-to-child HIV transmission rate was observed. To successfully achieve the PMTCT program outcomes, more emphasis should be given to younger women and to those newly enrolled in the PMTCT program.

Keywords: PMTCT, loss to follow-up, option B+, ART, Ethiopia

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