Resilience In Nepalese Adolescents: Socio-Demographic Factors Associated With Low Resilience
Received 7 August 2019
Accepted for publication 21 October 2019
Published 7 November 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 893—902
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
Rakesh Singh,1 Sharika Mahato,2 Babita Singh,3 Jeevan Thapa,1 Deirdre Gartland4
1School of Public Health, Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Lalitpur, Nepal; 2The Hebrew University-Hadassah Braun School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Jerusalem, Israel; 3National Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Tribhuvan University, Birgunj, Nepal; 4Intergenerational Health, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Correspondence: Rakesh Singh
School of Public Health, Patan Academy of Health Sciences, GPO Box. 26500, Lagankhel, Lalitpur, Nepal
Background: Resilience can be viewed as the potential to deal with stress positively. Resilient adolescents are likely to enter adulthood with a greater capacity to cope well in difficult circumstances. The purpose of this study was to measure resilience and the socio-demographic characteristics of Nepalese adolescents with low resilience.
Methods: A cross-sectional study of 4 randomly selected secondary schools in Lalitpur, Nepal, was conducted with 416 adolescent students (54.8% girls; M=16.1 years, SD=1.5). Resilience was measured using the Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire (ARQ) in Nepali. Socio-demographic factors investigated included personal (e.g. gender, age, ethnicity, religion, birth order, and participation in exercise), family (e.g. type of family, parents’ relationship status, employment and literacy) and community factors (e.g. living in an urban area).
Results: Mean resilience score was 311.7 (95% CI 308.6–314.5; SD=32.1) with 17.5% of adolescents classified as having low resilience. Socio-demographic factors associated with having low resilience included female gender (OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.03–2.95), attending a private school (OR=1.77, 95% CI=1.06–2.98), higher birth order compared to first born (OR=4.79, 95% CI=2.46–9.32), living in an urban area (OR=2.18, 95% CI=1.28–3.71); and being physically inactive (OR=3.0, 95% CI=1.77–5.08).
Conclusion: This first investigation of resilience in Nepalese adolescents using a standardised measure of resilience identified a number of socio-demographic factors as being associated with low resilience. While most socio-demographic factors are not modifiable, they can be used to guide educators and health professionals working with adolescents to identify those who may need greater support to achieve positive outcomes in the often challenging transition through adolescence and into adulthood.
Keywords: adolescents, resilience, low resilience, socio-demographic factors
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