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Rehabilitation management of low back pain – it’s time to pull it all together!

Authors Tousignant-Laflamme Y, Martel MO, Joshi AB, Cook CE

Received 15 July 2017

Accepted for publication 16 August 2017

Published 3 October 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 2373—2385

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S146485

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Minal Joshi

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Michael Schatman

Yannick Tousignant-Laflamme,1,2 Marc Olivier Martel,3 Anand B Joshi,4 Chad E Cook5

1School of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada; 2Clinicial Research Center of the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada; 3Faculties of Dentistry & Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 4Duke Health, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, 5Doctor of Physical Therapy Division, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA

Abstract: In the past, rehabilitation research initiatives for low back pain (LBP) have targeted outcome enhancement through personalized treatment approaches, namely through classification systems (CS). Although the use of CS has enhanced outcomes, common management practices have not changed, the prevalence of LBP is still high, and only selected patients meet the CS profile, namely those with a nociceptive context. Similarly, although practice guidelines propose some level of organization and occasionally a timeline of care provision, each mainly provides best practice for isolated treatment approaches. Moreover, there is no theoretical framework that has been proposed that guides the rehabilitation management process of mechanical LBP. In this commentary, we propose a model constituted of five domains (nociceptive drivers, nervous system dysfunction drivers, comorbidities drivers, cognitive–emotional drivers, and contextual drivers) grounded as mechanisms driving pain and/or disability in LBP. Each domain is linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, where once a patient is deemed suitable for rehabilitation, the clinician assesses elements of each domain in order to identify where the relative treatment efforts should be focused. This theoretical model is designed to provide a more comprehensive management overview, by appreciating the relative contribution of each domain driving pain and disability. Considering that the multiple domains driving pain and disability, and their interaction, requires a model that is comprehensive enough to identify and address each related issue, we consider that the proposed model has several positive implications for rehabilitation of this painful and highly prevalent musculoskeletal disorder.

Keywords: low back pain, spine, rehabilitation, pain management

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