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Recent trends in the development of nanophytobioactive compounds and delivery systems for their possible role in reducing oxidative stress in Parkinson’s disease models

Authors Ganesan P, Ko HM, Kim IS, Choi DK

Received 6 August 2015

Accepted for publication 19 September 2015

Published 29 October 2015 Volume 2015:10(1) Pages 6757—6772

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S93918

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Govarthanan Muthusamy

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas J Webster

Palanivel Ganesan,1,2 Hyun-Myung Ko,2 In-Su Kim,2 Dong-Kug Choi1,2

1Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Applied Life Science, 2Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, Republic of Korea

Abstract: Oxidative stress plays a very critical role in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), which is the second most common neurodegenerative disease among elderly people worldwide. Increasing evidence has suggested that phytobioactive compounds show enhanced benefits in cell and animal models of PD. Curcumin, resveratrol, ginsenosides, quercetin, and catechin are phyto-derived bioactive compounds with important roles in the prevention and treatment of PD. However, in vivo studies suggest that their concentrations are very low to cross blood–brain barrier thereby it limits bioavailability, stability, and dissolution at target sites in the brain. To overcome these problems, nanophytomedicine with the controlled size of 1–100 nm is used to maximize efficiency in the treatment of PD. Nanosizing of phytobioactive compounds enhances the permeability into the brain with maximized efficiency and stability. Several nanodelivery techniques, including solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, nanoliposomes, and nanoniosomes can be used for controlled delivery of nanobioactive compounds to brain. Nanocompounds, such as ginsenosides (19.9 nm) synthesized using a nanoemulsion technique, showed enhanced bioavailability in the rat brain. Here, we discuss the most recent trends and applications in PD, including 1) the role of phytobioactive compounds in reducing oxidative stress and their bioavailability; 2) the role of nanotechnology in reducing oxidative stress during PD; 3) nanodelivery systems; and 4) various nanophytobioactive compounds and their role in PD.

Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, phytobioactive compounds, nanotechnology delivery systems, nanocurcumin, nanoresveratrol

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