Psychometric validation of the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire-Depression (PDQ-D) instrument in US and UK respondents with major depressive disorder
Received 24 May 2018
Accepted for publication 20 July 2018
Published 29 October 2018 Volume 2018:14 Pages 2861—2877
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Roger Pinder
Raymond W Lam,1 François-Xavier Lamy,2 Natalya Danchenko,2 Aaron Yarlas,3 Michelle K White,3 Benoît Rive,2 Delphine Saragoussi2
1Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 2Global Outcomes Research, Lundbeck SAS, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France; 3Optum Patient Insights, Optum, Inc., Lincoln, RI, USA
Background: Although depression and cognitive dysfunction are connected, limited tools exist to capture the patient’s perspective on cognitive dysfunction and its impact on major depressive disorder (MDD). We report results of a psychometric validation of the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire-Depression (PDQ-D), a self-report measure of cognitive dysfunction for use in MDD.
Methods: A non-interventional, prospective, panel-recruited, online survey was conducted using the PDQ-D in adults with and without MDD in the US and UK. Respondents were assessed at baseline and after 6 weeks (MDD only) (baseline: US n=418, UK n=437, 49% MDD; follow-up: US n=169, UK n=153, all MDD). The criterion measures included: Medical Outcomes Study Cognitive Functioning Scale-Revised-acute form (MOS COG-R), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Patient Global Impression of Severity scale (PGI-Severity), Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire: Specific-Health Problem (WPAI:SHP), and modified Lam Employment Absence and Productivity Scale (LEAPS). US and UK data were analyzed separately.
Results: Internal consistency was high for PDQ-D total scale and four subscales (Cronbach’s alpha 0.81–0.96). Convergent validity was good, with strong concordance with MOS COG-R and moderate/small correlations with PHQ-9, SDS, WPAI:SHP, LEAPS, and PGI-Severity. Significant differences (all P<0.001) existed for all PDQ-D subscale and total scores between MDD/non-MDD samples. The PDQ-D was responsive to changes in depression symptom severity. Confirmatory factor analysis supported scoring of a global overall scale for perceived cognitive dysfunction.
Conclusion: The PDQ-D provides a reliable and valid measure of subjective cognitive dysfunction in patients with MDD.
Keywords: major depressive disorder, cognitive dysfunction, psychometric validation, self-report
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