Back to Journals » OncoTargets and Therapy » Volume 9

Prognostic significance of pretreatment albumin/globulin ratio in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

Authors Deng Y, Pang Q, Miao R, Chen W, Zhou Y, Bi J, Liu S, Zhang J, Qu K, Liu C

Received 2 April 2016

Accepted for publication 15 June 2016

Published 24 August 2016 Volume 2016:9 Pages 5317—5328


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Min Li

Yan Deng, Qing Pang, Run-Chen Miao, Wei Chen, Yan-Yan Zhou, Jian-Bin Bi, Su-Shun Liu, Jing-Yao Zhang, Kai Qu, Chang Liu

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, People’s Republic of China

Background: Pretreatment nutritional and immunological statuses play an indispensable role in predicting the outcome of patients with various types of malignancies. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the predictive value of albumin/globulin ratio (AGR) in overall survival (OS) and recurrence in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following radical hepatic carcinectomy. 
Patients and methods: This retrospective study included a total of 172 patients with HCC with complete medical and follow-up information between 2002 and 2012. AGR was calculated according to the following formula: AGR = albumin/globulin. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to determine the optimal cutoff value. The associations of AGR with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis were assessed. Further multivariate analysis using Cox regression model and subgroup analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive value. 
Results: Receiver operating characteristic curve determined 37.65, 31.99, and 1.48 as the optimal cutoff values of albumin, globulin, and AGR in terms of 5-year OS or death, respectively. On the basis of the cutoff value of AGR, all the patients were divided, respectively, into low-AGR (n=105) and high-AGR (n=67) groups. AGR was found to be significantly correlated with age, cancer embolus, international normalized ratio, and postoperative outcome (P<0.05). Hepatitis B virus infection (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.125; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.285–3.153), tumor node metastasis stage (HR: 1.656; 95% CI: 1.234–2.223), serum albumin (HR: 0.546; 95% CI: 0.347–0.857), and AGR (HR: 0.402; 95% CI: 0.233–0.691) were independent predictors of OS via univariate and multivariate survival analyses. However, alpha-fetoprotein (HR: 1.708; 95% CI: 1.027–2.838), tumor node metastasis stage (HR: 1.464; 95% CI: 1.078–1.989), and AGR (HR: 0.493; 95% CI: 0.293–0.828) functioned as independent risk variables for predicting recurrence. Moreover, AGR showed superior prognostic value for OS and recurrence in the subgroups with normal level of albumin or survival time beyond 6 months. 
Conclusion: Pretreatment AGR might serve as an effective biomarker to evaluate the prognosis of patients with a diagnosis of HCC. Based on the results, AGR, characterized with easy accessibility, objectivity, and noninvasiveness, should be included in the routine assessment of HCC.

Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, albumin/globulin ratio, prognosis, survival, recurrence

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]