Prevention of acute chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: the role of palonosetron
Emilio Bajetta, Sara Pusceddu, Valentina Guadalupi, Monika Ducceschi, Luigi Celio
Medical Oncology Unit 2, Fondazione IRCCS “Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori”, Milan, Italy
Abstract: Prevention of nausea and vomiting is the main goal of antiemetic treatment in cancer patients scheduled to receive chemotherapy. To prevent acute emesis, antiemetics should be administered just before chemotherapy and patients should be protected for up to 24 hours after chemotherapy initiation. The emetogenic potential of chemotherapeutic agents guides clinicians towards the most appropriate antiemetic prophylaxis. Current guidelines recommend the use of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist (RA) either alone or in combination with dexamethasone and/or a neurokinin-1 RA both in the acute and delayed phases. The second-generation 5-HT3RA palonosetron exhibits a longer half-life and a higher binding affinity than older antagonists. Palonosetron has been approved by the FDA for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in patients scheduled to receive either moderately (MEC) or highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) and for the prevention of delayed CINV in patients receiving MEC. The present review will discuss the role of palonosetron in the prevention of acute CINV.
Keywords: antiemetics, chemotherapy, nausea, vomiting, serotonin-receptor antagonists, palonosetron
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