Prevalent cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease in people with Parkinson’s disease: a meta-analysis
Received 23 January 2018
Accepted for publication 22 May 2018
Published 4 September 2018 Volume 2018:10 Pages 1147—1154
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman
Peer reviewer comments 4
Editor who approved publication: Professor Henrik Toft Sørensen
Chien Tai Hong,1,2 Han-Hwa Hu,1,2 Lung Chan,1,2,* Chyi-Huey Bai3,4,*
1Department of Neurology, Shuang-Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; 2Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei City, Taiwan; 3School of Public Health, College of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei City, Taiwan; 4Department of Public Health, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei City, Taiwan
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Background: People with Parkinson’s disease (PwP) are speculated to be at a low risk of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease (CVD) because they have fewer vascular risk factors and lower smoking rate. However, emerging evidence suggests that PwP are at higher risk of CVD, which introduces controversy to the notion that there is no association between Parkinson’s disease (PD) and CVD. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis to analyze the risk of CVD in PwP.
Methods: Electronic databases were searched using terms related to PD and CVD. Articles were included in the meta-analysis only if they employed clear diagnostic criteria for PD and CVD. The reference lists of the relevant articles were reviewed to identify eligible studies not found during the keyword search.
Results: The enrolled studies were categorized into case–control and cohort studies, and the former was further divided into postmortem (three) and clinical (four) studies. In the clinical case–control studies group, PD was more associated with CVD (OR: 2.89, 95% CI: 1.36–6.13). Three studies were enrolled in the cohort studies group, and the merged results demonstrated that PwP were at higher risk of CVD during the follow-up period (HR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.34–2.54).
Conclusion: PD is associated with CVD, which may be due to the shared pathogeneses between the two diseases or PD-related effects. PwP should be more aware of the risk of CVD despite having fewer traditional vascular risk factors.
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, cerebrovascular disease, cardiovascular disease, meta-analysis, case-control, cohort, cerebral multimorbidity
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