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Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage and pattern of antibiotic resistance among sheep farmers from Southern Italy

Authors Mascaro V, Squillace L, Nobile CGA, Papadopoli R, Bosch T, Schouls LM, Casalinuovo F, Musarella R, Pavia M

Received 9 April 2019

Accepted for publication 14 June 2019

Published 20 August 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 2561—2571

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S211629

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Suresh Antony


Valentina Mascaro,1 Lorena Squillace,1 Carmelo GA Nobile,2 Rosa Papadopoli,1 Thijs Bosch,3 Leo M Schouls,3 Francesco Casalinuovo,4 Rosanna Musarella,4 Maria Pavia1

1Department of Health Sciences, University of Catanzaro “Magna Græcia”, Catanzaro, Italy; 2Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, Cosenza, Italy; 3Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; 4Section of Catanzaro, Institute for Experimental Veterinary Medicine of Southern Italy, Catanzaro, Italy

Correspondence: Maria Pavia
Department of Health Sciences, University of Catanzaro “Magna Græcia”, Via Tommaso Campanella, Catanzaro 88100, Italy
Tel +39 96 171 2367
Fax +39 96 171 2382
Email pavia@unicz.it

Purpose: We conducted a cross-sectional study to measure the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization, with a particular focus on livestock associated (LA)-MRSA in farmers working in contact with livestock (sheep) in one Italian region. Furthermore, we have assessed the antimicrobial resistance pattern of isolates and the association of carriage with specific characteristic of farms and working tasks.
Patients and methods: Demographic data, occupational history, and contact with animals information was collected. Nasal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected and all samples were tested for the isolation and identification of S. aureus. Isolates were examined for antimicrobial susceptibility and all MRSA strains underwent molecular analyses through multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA).
Results: A total of 115 sheep farms and 275 sheep farmers were enrolled. MRSA colonized workers were found in three farms; S. aureus was isolated in 97 workers (35.5%), whereas MRSA was isolated in 3 (1.1%) workers. All MRSA isolates were classified as multidrug resistant. Two of the MRSA isolates were resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin (QDA), mupirocin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Among methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), 32 (34%) were resistant to tetracycline, 31 (33%) to erythromycin, 26 (27.6%) to QDA, and 22 (23.4%) to linezolid and clindamycin. One MRSA belonged to MLVA complex (MC) 001, found to colonize both humans and animals.
Conclusion: The picture of MRSA transmission among sheep farmers does not seem to be critical, although there is the need to improve adequate control measures to prevent and minimize any biological risk in sheep farms for both animal and human health. Specific monitoring/surveillance programs would help in better understanding the epidemiology of resistant strains.

Keywords: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, antimicrobial resistance, sheep farmers, colonization, epidemiology

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