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Prevalence and Risk Factors for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Among Saudi Hospitalized Diabetic Patients: A Nested Case-Control Study

Authors Aleidan FAS, Ahmad BA, Alotaibi FA, Aleesa DH, Alhefdhi NA, Badri M, Abdel Gader AG

Received 24 July 2020

Accepted for publication 16 September 2020

Published 16 October 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 881—889


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser

Fahad AS Aleidan,1,2 Banderi A Ahmad,1 Farah A Alotaibi,1 Dalal H Aleesa,1 Nuha A Alhefdhi,1 Motasim Badri,1 Abdel Galil Abdel Gader1

1College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2College of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence: Fahad AS Aleidan
College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Tel +966118011111

Objective: To determine the prevalence and the risk factors of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in hospitalized adult Saudi diabetics.
Methods: This is a retrospective, nested case-control study conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All diabetic patients admitted to the hospital between the January 1, and December 31, 2018 were considered for inclusion in the study. Patients with DPN were identified and three controls per case were randomly selected from the remaining diabetic patients without peripheral neuropathy (PN).
Results: A total of 2,096 adult diabetic patients were identified during the study period. Of these, 73 patients (3.5%) were confirmed to be suffering from DPN and 219 were included as controls. When comparing diabetic with the control cases, DPN cases were significantly older (p=0.002), had a significantly higher proportion of type 2 diabetes (p=0.023), chronic kidney disease (p< 0.0001), cerebral vascular stroke (p=0.027), hypertension (p=0.005), dyslipidemia (p=0.002), peripheral vascular disease (p< 0.0001), osteoarthritis (p=0.034), diabetic ketoacidosis (p=0.003), foot ulcers (p=0.006), gangrene (p=0.001), lower limb ischemia (p=0.001), increased duration with diabetic disease (p=0.031), increased BMI (p=0.003), higher serum creatinine (p< 0.001) and lower serum albumin levels (p=0.035). In the multivariate logistic regression, only older age {odds ratio (OR) 1.02, 95% CI 1.01– 1.04, p=0.031}, chronic kidney disease (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.23– 4.64, p=0.010) and peripheral vascular disease (OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.39– 7.13, p=0.006) were independently associated with DPN.
Conclusion: This study identified several risk factors that contributed to the development of DPN in Saudis. These must be considered in strategies and campaigns aimed at risk reduction of cardiovascular and chronic diseases, and consequently progression of DPN.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, risk factors

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