Prevalence and Associated Factors of Depression among Patients with HIV/AIDS in Lahore, Pakistan: Cross-Sectional Study
Received 9 August 2020
Accepted for publication 13 October 2020
Published 3 February 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 77—84
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Mei-chun Cheung
Khunsa Junaid,1 Hassan Ali,2 Ali Akram Khan,3 Taimoor Akram Khan,4 Aabish Mehreen Khan,5 Amjad Khan,6 Rabia Nazim,7 Khadija Tahira8
1Department of Public Health, Institute of Social and Cultural Studies, University of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan; 2Department of Public Health, Institute of Social and Cultural Studies, University of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan; 3Department of Community Medicine, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan; 4Department of Community Medicine, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan; 5Department of Community Medicine, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan; 6Department of Public Health, University of Haripur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan; 7Department of Community Medicine, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan; 8Department of Public Health, Institute of Social and Cultural Studies, University of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
Correspondence: Khunsa Junaid
Department of Public Health, Institute of Social and Cultural Studies, University of Punjab, Lahore, 75500, Pakistan
Background: Depression is defined as a psychiatric disorder characterized by depressed mood, lack of concentration, diminished energy, disturbed sleep, and low self-esteem. Depression is more prevalent in HIV/AIDS patients than the general population. There is no published study available that reveals the present status of depression among HIV patients in Pakistan. As such, the present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and associated factors of depression among HIV/AIDS patients attending the HIV clinic of Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan.
Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out from February to March 2019 in Lahore. Data were collected from 158 HIV/AIDS patients using a pretested, standardized, structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Nonprobability convenience sampling was used to recruit the study participants. Depression was evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire. SPSS version 23 was used to analyze the data. Binary logistic regression models were used to determine the various factors associated with depression. AORs with 95% CIs were used to assess the magnitude of associations between depression and associated factors.
Results: The mean age of the study participants was 35.03 years± 9.123. Prevalence of depression among HIV/AIDS patients was 32.2%. Living in a rural area (AOR 5.60, 95% CI 2.20, 14.15), fear of stigma and discrimination (AOR 3.505, 95% CI 1.364, 9.008), having worked abroad (AOR 3.017, 95% CI 1.134, 8.031), and history of substance abuse (AOR 4.147, 95% CI 1.673, 10.28) were significantly associated with depression.
Conclusion: The prevalence of depression among HIV/AIDS patients is very high in Pakistan. Therefore, it is suggested that guidelines formulated to screen and treat depression among HIV patients.
Keywords: depression, HIV/AIDS, convenience sampling, PHQ9 scale
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