Preparation of sustained release apremilast-loaded PLGA nanoparticles: in vitro characterization and in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rats
Received 18 November 2018
Accepted for publication 29 January 2019
Published 1 March 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 1587—1595
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Anderson Oliveira Lobo
Md Khalid Anwer,1 Muqtader Mohammad,1 Essam Ezzeldin,2,3 Farhat Fatima,1 Ahmed Alalaiwe,1 Muzaffar Iqbal2,3
1Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj 11942, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia; 3Bioavailability Laboratory, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
Background: Apremilast (APM) is a novel, orally administered small molecule drug approved for treatment of psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis. Due to its low solubility and permeability, it is classified as a class IV drug according to BCS classification. Dose titration is recommended during APM treatment due to its tolerability and twice-daily dosing regimen issues.
Materials and Methods: In this study, three different APM-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (F1–F3) were prepared by single emulsion and evaporation method. Based on particle size, PDI, zeta potential (ZP), entrapment efficiency (%EE), drug loading (%DL), and spectral characterization, the nanoparticles (F3) were optimized. The F3 nanoparticles were further evaluated for in vitro release and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rats.
Results: The optimized nanoparticles (F3) had particles size 307.3±8.5 nm with a low PDI value 0.317, ZP of -43.4±2.6 mV, EE of 61.1±1.9% and DL of 1.9±0.1%. The in vitro release profile showed a sustained release pattern of F3 nanoparticles of APM. The pharmacokinetic results showed 2.25 times increase in bio-availability of F3 nanoparticles compared to normal APM suspension. Moreover, significant increase in half-life and mean residence time confirms long-term retention of F3 nanoparticles.
Conclusion: Bioavailability enhancement along-with long-term retention of the APM-loaded PLGA nanoparticles might be helpful for the once-daily regimen treatment.
Keywords: apremilast, Poly(D,L-lactide-coglycolide), nanoparticles, bioavailability, sustained release