Pre-emptive multimodal analgesia with tramadol and ketamine–lidocaine infusion for suppression of central sensitization in a dog model of ovariohysterectomy
Authors Kaka U, Rahman NA, Abubakar AA, Goh YM, Fakurazi S, Omar MA, Chen HC
Received 25 September 2017
Accepted for publication 5 January 2018
Published 11 April 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 743—752
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Minal Joshi
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Katherine Hanlon
Ubedullah Kaka,1,2 Nor-Alimah Rahman,1 Adamu Abdul Abubakar,1,3 Yong Meng Goh,2,4 Sharida Fakurazi,5,6 Mohamed Ariff Omar,4 Hui Cheng Chen1
1Department of Companion Animal Medicine and Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 2Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; 3Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; 4Department of Preclinical Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 5Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, 6Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia
Objectives: The effects of pre-emptive infusion of ketamine–lidocaine with tramadol on the suppression of central sensitization were investigated in a dog ovariohysterectomy model.
Patients and methods: Twelve dogs were randomly assigned to two groups: ketamine–lidocaine–tramadol (KLT) and tramadol (T) groups. Both groups received intravenous tramadol 4 mg/kg body weight as premedication. Immediately after induction, the KLT group received ketamine and lidocaine at 0.5 and 2 mg/kg loading dose, followed by continuous rate infusion of 50 and 100 µg/kg/min, respectively, for 2 hours. Dogs in T group received saline bolus and continuous rate infusion at equi-volume. Intraoperatively, hemodynamic responses to surgical stimulation were recorded, whereas postoperative pain was evaluated using an algometer and short form of the Glasgow composite measure pain scale.
Results: Intraoperatively, hemodynamic responses to surgical stimulation were obtunded to a greater degree in KLT compared to T group. Postoperatively, the pain scores increased only for the first hour in KLT group, compared to 12 hours in T group. Mechanical thresholds at the abdomen decreased postoperatively between 12 and 60 hours in KLT group versus the entire 72 hours in T group. Thresholds at tibia and radius in both groups increased in the immediate 1 hour postoperatively, but decreased thereafter. Significant decrement of thresholds from baseline were detected in the tibia at 24, 42, and 60 hours in KLT group compared to 24–72 hours in T group, and in the radius between 36 and 48 hours in T group, but none in KLT group.
Conclusion: Addition of pre-emptive ketamine–lidocaine infusion to single intravenous dose of tramadol enhanced attenuation of central sensitization and improved intra- and postoperative analgesia.
Keywords: pre-emptive multimodal analgesia, ketamine, lidocaine, tramadol, central sensitization, postoperative pain
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