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Predictors of high central blood pressure in young with isolated systolic hypertension

Authors Radchenko G, Torbas O, Sirenko Y

Received 28 September 2015

Accepted for publication 14 April 2016

Published 2 August 2016 Volume 2016:12 Pages 321—328

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/VHRM.S97304

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Daniel Duprez


G D Radchenko, O O Torbas, Yu M Sirenko

State Institute National Scientific Center, M.D. Strazhesko Institute of Cardiology, National Academy of Medical Science, Kyiv, Ukraine

Objective: According to the European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Hypertension 2013 guidelines, evaluation of aortic blood pressure (BP) is needed in young with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), but using special devices is not common, especially in Ukraine, where only a few centers have these devices. The purpose of our study was to identify the simple clinical predictors for differentiation (with or without elevated aortic systolic BP [SBP]) of the young with ISH without the need for further extensive work-up.
Patients and methods: The study included 44 young men (mean age: 32.2±1.3 years) with office SBP ≥140 mmHg and office diastolic BP (DBP) <90 mmHg (average: 153.4±2.1 mmHg and 83.4±1.7 mmHg, respectively). The following procedures were performed in all the subjects: body weight and height evaluation; measurement of office SBP, DBP, and heart rate; ambulatory BP monitoring; measurement of pulse wave velocity in arteries of elastic and muscle types and central SBP (cSBP); biochemical blood tests; electrocardiography; echocardiography; and carotid ultrasound investigations. Step-by-step multifactor regression analyses were used for finding the predictors of high cSBP.
Results:
Depending on the cSBP level, all the patients were divided into two groups: first group (n=17), subjects with normal cSBP, and second group (n=27), subjects with elevated cSBP. Patients in the second group were significantly older, with less height and higher body mass index; they had significantly higher levels of office SBP and DBP. Characteristics of target organ damage were within normal limits in both groups and did not differ significantly. Only pulse wave velocity in arteries of elastic type was significantly higher in the second group. The independent predictors of increased cSBP were as follows: height ≤178 cm (β=7.038; P=0.05), body weight ≥91 kg (β=5.53, P=0.033), and the level of office DBP ≥80 mmHg (β=4.43; P=0.05). The presence of two or three of these factors increased the probability of high cSBP in more than ten times (β=10.6, P=0.001). The sensitivity and specificity were 92.6% and 88.2%, respectively.
Conclusion: Thus, 38.6% of young with ISH had normal cSBP. Independent predictors of increased cSBP included height ≤178 cm, weight ≥91 kg, and the level of office DBP ≥80 mmHg. The presence of at least two of these factors indicated the need for starting the antihypertensive therapy in young with ISH. The presence of only one of these factors or none indicated the need for providing the central BP measurements in order to choose the further management strategy.

Keywords: isolated systolic hypertension, young, central blood pressure

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