Back to Journals » Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment » Volume 9

Predicting acute side effects of stimulant medication in pediatric attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: data from quantitative electroencephalography, event-related potentials, and a continuous-performance test

Authors Ogrim G, Hestad KA, Brunner JF, Kropotov J

Received 7 June 2013

Accepted for publication 8 July 2013

Published 5 September 2013 Volume 2013:9 Pages 1301—1309


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Geir Ogrim,1–3 Knut A Hestad,3,4 Jan Ferenc Brunner,3,5,6 Juri Kropotov3,7,8

1Neuropsychiatric Unit, Østfold Hospital Trust, Fredrikstad, Norway; 2National Resource Center for ADHD, Tourettes' Syndrome and Narcolepsy, Oslo, Norway; 3Institute of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway; 4Division of Mental Health, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Brumunddal, Norway; 5Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, St Olav's Hospital, Trondheim, Norway; 6Department of Neuroscience, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 7Institute of the Human Brain, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia; 8Department of Neuropsychology, Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Krakow University, Krakow, Poland

Background: The aim of this study was to search for predictors of acute side effects of stimulant medication in pediatric attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), emphasizing variables from quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG), event-related potentials (ERPs), and behavior data from a visual continuous-performance test (VCPT).
Methods: Seventy medication-naïve ADHD patients aged 7–16 years were tested with QEEG, including a go/no-go task condition (VCPT) from which behavior data and ERPs were extracted, followed by a systematic trial on stimulant medication lasting at least 4 weeks. Based on data from rating scales and interviews, two psychologists who were blind to the QEEG/ERP test results independently rated the patients as having no or small side effects (n = 37) or troublesome side effects (n = 33). We determined if the side effects were related to sex, age, IQ, ADHD subtype, comorbidities, clinical outcome, and variables in QEEG, ERPs, and VCPT.
Results: There was a moderate negative correlation between clinical outcome and side effects. Three variables were significantly associated with side effects in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the ERP independent component – contingent negative variation – which reflected action preparation and time evaluation, patients with high amplitudes (close to normal values) experienced more side effects than patients with lower amplitudes. A faster-than-normal reaction time in VCPT was associated with side effects, as was a high amplitude in an early ERP component (early visual independent component), reported to be influenced by attention, perceptual sensitivity, and anxiety.
Conclusion: The group with troublesome side effects had normal action-preparation electrical brain activity, a faster-than-normal reaction time, and an increased level of anxiety (measured by ERP) compared with the no side-effects group.

Keywords: ADHD, stimulants, side effects, QEEG, ERP, go/no-go test

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]


Readers of this article also read:

Green synthesis of water-soluble nontoxic polymeric nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles

Prozorova GF, Pozdnyakov AS, Kuznetsova NP, Korzhova SA, Emel’yanov AI, Ermakova TG, Fadeeva TV, Sosedova LM

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:1883-1889

Published Date: 16 April 2014

Methacrylic-based nanogels for the pH-sensitive delivery of 5-Fluorouracil in the colon

Ashwanikumar N, Kumar NA, Nair SA, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5769-5779

Published Date: 15 November 2012

A novel preparation method for silicone oil nanoemulsions and its application for coating hair with silicone

Hu Z, Liao M, Chen Y, Cai Y, Meng L, Liu Y, Lv N, Liu Z, Yuan W

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5719-5724

Published Date: 12 November 2012

Cross-linked acrylic hydrogel for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs in cancer therapy

Deepa G, Thulasidasan AK, Anto RJ, Pillai JJ, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:4077-4088

Published Date: 27 July 2012

Crystallization after intravitreal ganciclovir injection

Pitipol Choopong, Nattaporn Tesavibul, Nattawut Rodanant

Clinical Ophthalmology 2010, 4:709-711

Published Date: 14 July 2010