Potential sources of stem cells as a regenerative therapy for Parkinson's disease
Abir Oueida El-Sadik
Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Scientific Research Unit, Female Health Science College, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Abstract: Stem cells are believed to hold enormous promise as potential replacement therapy in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Stem cells were investigated to be the alternative therapeutic source capable of differentiating into dopamine (DA) neurons. Multiple important signaling factors were recorded for the induction of DA neuronal traits from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) such as fibroblast growth factor 8, sonic hedgehog, and Wnt 1. Recent protocols were described for the differentiation of human ESCs into DA neurons, achieving high efficiency of DA neuronal derivation. Despite that, the use of human ESCs is still ethically controversial. The transcription factors necessary for DA neuron development from adult neural stem cells (NSCs), such as Pitx3, Nurr1, En-1, En-2, Lmx1a, Lmx1b, Msx1, and Ngn2, were investigated. In addition to replacement of lost DA neurons, adult NSCs were recorded to provide neuroprotective and neurogenic factors for the mesencephalon. In addition, induced pluripotent stem cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells represent reliable stem cell sources of DA neurons. Future studies are recommended to provide further insight into the regenerative capacity of stem cells needed for the treatment of PD.
Keywords: dopamine, embryonic stem cells, neural stem cells, Parkinson's disease, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells
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