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Potential serum and urine biomarkers in patients with lupus nephritis and the unsolved problems

Authors Hsieh S, Tsai C, Yu C

Received 15 May 2016

Accepted for publication 7 July 2016

Published 19 September 2016 Volume 2016:8 Pages 81—91


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Chuan-Ju Liu

Song-Chou Hsieh,1 Chang-Youh Tsai,2 Chia-Li Yu3

1Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, 2Section of Allergy, Immunology & Rheumatology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Molecular Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan

Abstract: Lupus nephritis (LN) is one of the most frequent and serious complications in the patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Autoimmune-mediated inflammation in both renal glomerular and tubulointerstitial tissues is the major pathological finding of LN. In clinical practice, the elevated anti-dsDNA antibody titer concomitant with reduced complement C3 and C4 levels has become the predictive and disease-activity surrogate biomarkers in LN. However, more and more evidences suggest that autoantibodies other than anti-dsDNA antibodies, such as anti-nucleosome, anti-C1q, anti-C3b, anti-cardiolipin, anti-endothelial cell, anti-ribonuclear proteins, and anti-glomerular matrix (anti-actinin) antibodies, may also involve in LN. Researchers have demonstrated that the circulating preformed and in situ-formed immune complexes as well as the direct cytotoxic effects by those cross-reactive autoantibodies mediated kidney damage. On the other hand, many efforts had been made to find useful urine biomarkers for LN activity via measurement of immune-related mediators, surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry proteomic signature, and assessment of mRNA and exosomal-derived microRNA from urine sediment cell. Our group had also devoted to this field with some novel findings. In this review, we briefly discuss the possible mechanisms of LN and try to figure out the potential serum and urine biomarkers in LN. Finally, some of the unsolved problems in this field are discussed.

Keywords: anti-dsDNA antibodies, serum biomarkers, urine biomarkers, THP

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