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Poststroke cognitive impairment and dementia: prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment

Authors Melkas S, Jokinen H, Hietanen M, Erkinjuntti T

Received 18 October 2013

Accepted for publication 26 November 2013

Published 5 February 2014 Volume 2014:4 Pages 21—27


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 5

Susanna Melkas, Hanna Jokinen, Marja Hietanen, Timo Erkinjuntti

Department of Neurology, Helsinki University Central Hospital and Department of Neurological Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

Abstract: Three aspects of poststroke cognitive impairment and dementia are discussed in this review: prevalence; diagnosis; and treatment. The aim is to increase awareness of poststroke cognitive impairment in order to further stimulate strategies to recognize the condition and to prevent its progression. Approximately two-thirds of all middle-aged and elderly stroke patients develop cognitive impairment, and one in three develops dementia. The standard reference for diagnosis is a detailed neuropsychological examination. Short screening tests have been used for both clinical and research purposes, but their sensitivity is limited and there is no consensus as to which test is the most appropriate. The treatment of poststroke cognitive impairment and dementia is based on effective treatment of vascular risk factors, including lifestyle modification when needed.

Keywords: cerebrovascular diseases, stroke, cognitive impairment, dementia

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