Positive end-expiratory pressure attenuates hemodynamic effects induced by an overload of inspiratory muscles in patients with COPD
Authors Schaper-Magalhães F, Pinho JF, Capuruço CAB, Rodrigues-Machado MG
Received 4 April 2017
Accepted for publication 29 July 2017
Published 6 October 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 2943—2954
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Charles Downs
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Russell
Flavia Schaper-Magalhães,1 José Felippe Pinho,1 Carolina Andrade Bragança Capuruço,2 Maria Glória Rodrigues-Machado1
1Medical Sciences Faculty of Minas Gerais, Post-Graduation Program in Health Sciences, Belo Horizonte, Brazil; 2Department of Cardiology, Clinics Hospital, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
Background: Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) using a Threshold® device is commonly used to improve the strength and endurance of inspiratory muscles. However, the effect of IMT, alone or with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), on hemodynamic parameters in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains unknown.
Objective: To assess the effects of an overload of inspiratory muscles using IMT fixed at 30% of the maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), and IMT associated with 5 cmH2O of PEEP (IMT + PEEP), on the echocardiographic parameters in healthy subjects and patients with COPD.
Methods: Twenty patients with COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 second 53.19±24.71 pred%) and 15 age-matched healthy volunteers were evaluated using spirometry, MIP, the COPD assessment test (CAT), and the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale. The E- (fast-filling phase) and A- (atrial contraction phase) waves were evaluated at the tricuspid and mitral valves during inspiration and expiration in the following sequence: at basal conditions, using IMT, and using IMT + PEEP.
Results: Patients with COPD had reduced MIPs versus the control group. Ten patients had CAT scores <10 and 12 patients had mMRC scores <2. E-wave values at the mitral valve were significantly decreased with IMT during the inspiratory phase in both groups. These effects were normalized with IMT + PEEP. During the expiratory phase, use of IMT + PEEP normalized the reduction in E-wave values in the COPD group. During inspiration at the tricuspid valve, reduction in E-wave values during IMT was normalized by IMT + PEEP in COPD group. During the expiratory phase, the value of the E-waves was significantly reduced with overload of the inspiratory muscles in both groups, and these effects were normalized with IMT + PEEP. A-waves did not change under any conditions.
Conclusion: Acute hemodynamic effects induced by overloading of the inspiratory muscles were attenuated and/or reversed by the addition of PEEP in COPD patients.
Keywords: echocardiography, mitral valve, tricuspid valve, inspiratory muscle strength, spirometry, Medical Research Council, dyspnea scale
This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.Download Article [PDF] View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]