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Plasma levels and diagnostic utility of VEGF, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 in the diagnosis of patients with breast cancer

Authors Ławicki S, Zajkowska M, Głażewska E, Będkowska G, Szmitkowski M

Received 5 November 2015

Accepted for publication 11 January 2016

Published 24 February 2016 Volume 2016:9 Pages 911—919


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Ram Prasad

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Daniele Santini

Sławomir Ławicki,1 Monika Zajkowska,1 Edyta Katarzyna Głażewska,2 Grażyna Ewa Będkowska,3 Maciej Szmitkowski1

1Department of Biochemical Diagnostics, 2Laboratory of Esthetic Medicine, 3Department of Hematological Diagnostics, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland

Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase-9, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 may play a role in the pathogenesis of cancer disease. We investigated their levels and utility in comparison to cancer antigen (CA) 15-3 in patients with breast cancer (BC) and in relation to the control groups. The study included 100 women with BC, 50 patients with benign breast tumor, and 50 healthy women. The plasma levels of the tested parameters were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, while CA 15-3 with chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. The results demonstrated significant differences in the concentration of the tested parameters and CA 15-3 between groups of patients with BC and healthy patients or patients with benign breast tumor. The plasma levels of VEGF and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 were significantly higher in advanced tumor stages. The tested parameters were comparable to CA 15-3 values of the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, the predictive values of positive and negative test results, and the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve. The combined use of the tested parameters with CA 15-3 resulted in the increase in sensitivity, negative predictive value, and area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, especially in the combination of VEGF with tumor marker (84%, 73%, 0.888, respectively). These findings suggest the usefulness of the tested parameters in the diagnosis of BC. VEGF, especially in combination with CA 15-3, showed the highest usefulness in the diagnosis of early BC.

Keywords: diagnostic panel, gelatinase B, growth factor, tumor markers, CA 15-3

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