Pioglitazone improves the cardio-ankle vascular index in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with metformin
Received 1 April 2014
Accepted for publication 6 May 2014
Published 17 July 2014 Volume 2014:7 Pages 313—319
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Masahiro Ohira,1 Takashi Yamaguchi,1 Atsuhito Saiki,1 Noriko Ban,1 Hidetoshi Kawana,1 Ayako Nagumo,1 Takeyoshi Murano,2 Kohji Shirai,3 Ichiro Tatsuno1
1Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, 3Department of Vascular Function, Sakura Hospital, Toho University Medical Center, Chiba, Japan
Background: Type 2 diabetes is known to be associated with elevated cardiovascular mortality. Pioglitazone improves blood pressure (BP) and pulse wave velocity (PWV), which is an arterial stiffness parameter. Arterial stiffness is closely associated with cardiovascular disease. However, PWV is correlated with BP. The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) reflects arterial stiffness independent of BP. Pioglitazone improves PWV but reduces blood pressure. The aim of this study was to re-evaluate the effect of pioglitazone on arterial stiffness with CAVI.
Methods: Sixty patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and already on 500 mg/day of metformin received add-on therapy of pioglitazone 15 mg/day or glimepiride 1 mg/day for 6 months, during which time changes in their metabolic parameters and CAVI were observed.
Results: After 6 months of treatment, both pioglitazone (n=30) and glimepiride (n=30) improved fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. The changes in fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin between the two groups were greater in the pioglitazone group. Systolic and diastolic BP was decreased in both groups, with no significant between-group differences. Only pioglitazone increased serum adiponectin levels, and the change in adiponectin between the pioglitazone and glimepiride groups was significantly different. CAVI was decreased significantly by pioglitazone but remained unchanged after treatment with glimepiride. The change in CAVI between the two groups was significantly different.
Conclusion: These results suggest that pioglitazone improves CAVI, a BP-independent arterial stiffness parameter, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with metformin.
Keywords: biguanide, thiazolidinediones, sulfonylurea, blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, arterial stiffness
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