Back to Journals » Infection and Drug Resistance » Volume 14

Phenotypic Detection of Carbapenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli from a Clinical Specimen in Sidama, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors Alemayehu T, Asnake S, Tadesse B, Azerefegn E, Mitiku E, Agegnehu A, Nigussie N, H/Mariam T, Desta M

Received 9 November 2020

Accepted for publication 13 January 2021

Published 2 February 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 369—380


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Suresh Antony

Tsegaye Alemayehu,1 Solomon Asnake,1 Bereket Tadesse,2 Elshaday Azerefegn,2 Enkosilassie Mitiku,2 Asnakech Agegnehu,2 Netsanet Nigussie,2 Techilo H/Mariam,2 Moges Desta1

1Hawassa University College of Medicine and Health Science, School of Medical Laboratory Science, Hawassa, Ethiopia; 2Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital Microbiology Laboratory, Hawassa, Ethiopia

Correspondence: Tsegaye Alemayehu
Hawassa University College of Medicine and Health Science, School of Medical Laboratory Science, P.O. Box 1560, Hawassa, Sidama, Ethiopia
Tel +251-91387241

Background: Carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria are an emergent source of both community-acquired and healthcare-associated infection that poses a substantial hazard to public health. This study aimed to conclude the magnitude of carbapenem resistance gram-negative bacteria from a clinical specimen at Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital.
Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was accompanied from February 13 to June 7, 2020, in which consecutive patients with 103 gram-negative bacteria were encompassed. The isolates included were 54 urine, 17 blood, 17 pusses, 4 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 3 aspirates, 3 effusions, 2 stools, 2 ear discharges, and 1 nasal swab. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather socio-demographic data from the attendant and clinical data from the patient’s chart. Patients admitted in any wards and visited outpatients department were included for the study if gram-negative bacteria was identified for those who accepted the consent. A routine manual culture, Gram’s staining and biochemical tests used to identify the bacteria. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined for twelve antibiotics including cotrimoxazole, ceftazidime, meropenem, gentamycin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, nitrofurantoin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and amikacin using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Modified carbapenem inactivation (mCIM) method was used to determine carbapenem resistance using meropenem disk as per the recommendation of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline. Statistical package for social science software version 21 was used for data entry and analysis. The odds ratio at 95% confidence interval (CI) and p-value < 0.05 were taken as a statistically significant association.
Results: Generally, 111 gram-negative bacteria were identified from 103 patients. Of 111 isolates, thirteen isolates (nine resistance and four intermediates) were identified in disk diffusion testing for meropenem. Of this, 10 isolates were carbapenemases producer with the overall rates of 9% in the Modified carbapenem inactivation method (mCIM). Pseudomonas spp. 3 (30.0%), E. coli, K. pneumonia, Acinetobacter spp. each two (20.0%), and K. oxytoca 1 (10.0%) were identified as carbapenemases positive. The rates of the multidrug, extensive, pan drug were 86.5, 43.3, and 1.8, respectively. Ampicillin 94 (97.9%), followed by cefuroxime 52 (91.2%), cefotaxime 94 (88.7%), cotrimoxazole 58 (88.1%), ceftazidime 40 (83.3%), ciprofloxacin 47 (77.1%), nitrofurantoin 35 (70.0%), gentamycin 71 (65.7%), with high level of resistance. However, piperacillin-tazobactam 41 (48.8%), chloramphenicol 25 (47.2%), meropenem 13 (11.7%), and amikacin 9 (8.5%) were with low rates of resistance. In this study, there were no variables statically associated with carbapenem resistance that is p > 0.05.
Conclusion: Our study showed that carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacilli are 9% in the study area. Our finding signposts that ampicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cotrimoxazole, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and gentamycin with a high rate of resistance > 50%. However, piperacillin-tazobactam, chloramphenicol, meropenem, and amikacin were at low rates of resistance. Therefore, a measure should be taken to contain carbapenem resistance gram-negative bacteria in the study area. Further, study with better method needs to be conducted to conclude the real scenario of carbapenem resistance.

Keywords: phenotypic, carbapenem resistance, gram-negative bacilli, clinical specimen, Hawassa, Ethiopia

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]