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Pharmacodynamic considerations of collateral sensitivity in design of antibiotic treatment regimen

Authors Udekwu KI, Weiss H

Received 1 February 2018

Accepted for publication 24 April 2018

Published 23 July 2018 Volume 2018:12 Pages 2249—2257


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Qiongyu Guo

Klas I Udekwu,1,* Howard Weiss2,*

1Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Department of Mathematics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Introduction: Antibiotics have greatly reduced the morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases. Although antibiotic resistance is not a new problem, its breadth now constitutes a significant threat to human health. One strategy to help combat resistance is to find novel ways to use existing drugs, even those that display high rates of resistance. For the pathogens Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, pairs of antibiotics have been identified for which evolution of resistance to drug A increases sensitivity to drug B and vice versa. These research groups have proposed cycling such pairs to treat infections, and similar treatment strategies are being investigated for various cancer forms as well. While an exciting treatment prospect, no cycling experiments have yet been performed with consideration of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. To test the plausibility of such schemes and optimize them, we create a mathematical model with explicit pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic considerations.
Materials and methods: We evaluate antibiotic cycling protocols using pairs of such antibiotics and investigate the speed of ascent of multiply resistant mutants.
Results: Our analyses show that when using low concentrations of antibiotics, treatment failure will always occur due to the rapid ascent and fixation of resistant mutants. However, moderate to high concentrations of some combinations of bacteriostatic and bactericidal antibiotics with multiday cycling prevent resistance from developing and increase the likelihood of treatment success.
Conclusion: Our results call for guarded optimism in application and development of such treatment protocols.

Keywords: collateral sensitivity, antibiotics, treatment efficacy, in vitro pharmacodynamics, mathematical modeling

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