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Personalized therapeutics of α1-blockers in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia

Authors Zhu L, Feng Z, Zhou Q

Received 8 February 2015

Accepted for publication 9 February 2015

Published 26 March 2015 Volume 2015:10 Pages 621—624

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S82435

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Editor who approved publication: Dr Zhi-Ying Wu


Ling-ling Zhu,1 Zhi-jun Feng,2 Quan Zhou3

1Geriatric VIP Ward, Division of Nursing, 2Department of Urology Surgery, 3Department of Pharmacy, the Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China
 
We read with great interest the multicenter, prospective, comparative cohort study by Zhang et al1 who suggested that patients with uncontrolled or untreated hypertension and lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH/LUTS) should be warned about a decrease in blood pressure on initiation of alfuzosin 10 mg therapy alone or concomitantly with antihypertensive medication. Here we discuss and share our perspectives on this issue.
 
View original paper by Zhang and colleagues.

 

Dear editor

We read with great interest the multicenter, prospective, comparative cohort study by Zhang et al1 who suggested that patients with uncontrolled or untreated hypertension and lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH/LUTS) should be warned about a decrease in blood pressure on initiation of alfuzosin 10 mg therapy alone or concomitantly with antihypertensive medication. Here we discuss and share our perspectives on this issue.

α1-blockers are the most frequently prescribed medical therapy in the treatment of BPH/LUTS. A number of α1-blockers (alfuzosin, doxazosin, terazosin, tamsulosin, naftopidil, silodosin) have been approved for the treatment of BPH throughout the world; however, they exhibit different selectivity toward α1-adrenoceptor (AR) subtypes. Three types of α1-AR subtypes (α1A, α1B, and α1D) are found in human tissue. The α1A subtype is located in the human prostate, bladder base, bladder neck, prostatic capsule, and prostatic urethra, and mediates contraction of the smooth muscle in these tissues. In addition to α1A-ARs, α1D-ARs are also present to a significant extent in the human prostate, and α1B-ARs are thought to mediate contraction of human arteries.2

The early α1-blockers (alfuzosin, doxazosin, terazosin) were nonselective for subtype and were associated with blood pressure-related adverse effects, such as orthostatic hypotension.3 Sato et al compared the binding affinity of tamsulosin for human α1-AR subtypes with that of other α1-blockers, ie, silodosin, terazosin, alfuzosin, and naftopidil.4 Tamsulosin has relative selectivity for the α1A-subtype and α1D-subtype (α1A = α1D > α1B), and naftopidil has relative selectivity for the α1D-subtype (α1D ≥ α1A > α1B). The affinity of tamsulosin for the human α1A-AR was, respectively, 5-fold, 120-fold, 280-fold, and 400-fold higher than that of silodosin, terazosin, alfuzosin, and naftopidil, respectively. However, the α1B-AR binding affinity of silodosin was shown to be much lower than that of tamsulosin in vitro.5 The selectivity of silodosin towards the α1A-AR subtype versus the α1B-AR subtype (α1A > α1D > α1B) was reported to be 38-fold higher than that of tamsulosin in studies using transgenic Chinese hamster ovary cells.6,7 The selectivity ratio (α1A1B) for terazosin, doxazosin, alfuzosin, tamsulosin, and silodosin was 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 6.3, and 166, respectively.8 The unique AR selectivity profile of silodosin minimizes the propensity for blood pressure-related adverse effects caused by α1B-AR blockade.9 Regarding the efficacy of subtype-selective α1-blockers in the management of BPH, expression of α1-AR subtype mRNA was observed as a predictor. Tamsulosin hydrochloride was more effective in patients with dominant expression of the α1A-AR subtype, whereas naftopidil was more effective in those with dominant expression of the α1D-AR subtype.10

With respect to the indications for α1-blockers, doxazosin and terazosin are currently indicated for the treatment of both hypertension and BPH/LUTS, and are more likely to impair safety-relevant physiological blood pressure control in normotensives with LUTS than are tamsulosin and silodosin.11,12 Alfuzosin is only indicated for treatment of BPH/LUTS. The study by Zhang et al demonstrated that alfuzosin 10 mg has no clinically important effects on blood pressure when used to treat BPH/LUTS in men who were physiologically normotensive or had hypertension controlled by antihypertensive medication. The relevance of their finding is that it provides reassurance for clinicians when prescribing alfuzosin 10 mg for a patient who is already on antihypertensive therapy, without the need to worry about the risk of hypotensive episodes. However, alfuzosin 10 mg significantly decreased blood pressure in patients with uncontrolled or untreated hypertension, indicating that such patients require careful evaluation before initiating alfuzosin therapy.1 The study by Zhang et al further indicates that the clinical selectivity and cardiovascular safety of α1-blockers are related to patient-treatment interactions (comedication and comorbidity), and their finding will enrich our knowledge about the personalized therapeutics of α1-blockers in the treatment of BPH/LUTS.1 However, the vasodilatory adverse events of alfuzosin are related to dose, dosage interval, and formulation, ie, they are less frequent with once-daily, sustained-release alfuzosin 10 mg than with the three times daily 2.5 mg formulation (6.3% versus 9.4%, respectively).13 Therefore, clinicians should be cautious about extrapolating the finding of the study by Zhang et al to treatment of BPH/LUTS with an immediate-release formulation of alfuzosin.1

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the Zhejiang Provincial Bureau of Health (2012KYA090).

Disclosure

The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work.


References

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Zhang LT, Lee SW, Park K, et al. Multicenter, prospective, comparative cohort study evaluating the efficacy and safety of alfuzosin 10 mg with regard to blood pressure in men with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia with or without antihypertensive medications. Clin Interv Aging. 2015;10:277–286.

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Sohn JT, Ding X, McCune DF, Perez DM, Murray PA. Fentanyl attenuates alpha1B-adrenoceptor-mediated pulmonary artery contraction. Anesthesiology. 2005;103:327–334.

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Schwinn DA, Roehrborn CG. Alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes and lower urinary tract symptoms. Int J Urol. 2008;15:193–199.

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Sato S, Hatanaka T, Yuyama H, et al. Tamsulosin potently and selectively antagonizes human recombinant α(1A/1D)-adrenoceptors: slow dissociation from the α(1A)-adrenoceptor may account for selectivity for α(1A)-adrenoceptor over α(1B)-adrenoceptor subtype. Biol Pharm Bull. 2012;35:72–77.

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Yoshida M, Kudoh J, Homma Y, Kawabe K. Safety and efficacy of silodosin for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Clin Interv Aging. 2011;6:161–172.

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Kojima Y, Sasaki S, Kubota Y, et al. Expression of alpha1-adrenoceptor subtype mRNA as a predictor of the efficacy of subtype selective alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Urol. 2008;179:1040–1046.

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de Mey C. Alpha(1)-blockers for BPH: are there differences? Eur Urol. 1999;36 Suppl 3:52–63.

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Capitanio U, Salonia A, Briganti A, Montorsi F. Silodosin in the management of lower urinary tract symptoms as a result of benign prostatic hyperplasia: who are the best candidates? Int J Clin Pract. 2013;67:544–551.

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van Kerrebroeck P, Jardin A, Laval KU, van Cangh P. Efficacy and safety of a new prolonged release formulation of alfuzosin 10 mg once daily versus alfuzosin 2.5 mg thrice daily and placebo in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. ALFORTI Study Group. Eur Urol. 2000;37:306–313.

Authors’ reply

Li Tao Zhang,1 Sung Won Lee,2 Kwangsung Park,3 Woo Sik Chung,4 Sae Woong Kim,5 Jae Seog Hyun,6 Doo Geon Moon,7 Sang-Kuk Yang,8 Ji Kan Ryu,9 Dae Yul Yang,10 Ki Hak Moon,11 Kweon Sik Min,12 Jong Kwan Park1

1Department of Urology, Chonbuk National University, Medical School and Biomedical Research Institute and Clinical Trial Center for Medical Devices of Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, 2Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, 3Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, 4Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Ihwa University, 5Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Catholic University, Seoul, 6Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Kyungsang National University, Jinju, 7Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, 8Department of Urology, Chungju Hospital, College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju, 9Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon, 10Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul, 11Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Youngnam University, Daegu, 12Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Inje University, Busan, Republic of Korea

Correspondence: Jong Kwan Park, Department of Urology, Chonbuk National University, Medical School and Biomedical Research Institute and Clinical Trial Center for Medical Devices of Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju 561-712, Republic of Korea, Tel +82 063 250 1510, Fax +82 063 250 1564, Email rain@chonbuk.ac.kr


Dear editor

Alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonists (α1-blockers) were initially developed as cardiovascular drugs for the treatment of arterial hypertension, but are no longer considered first-line antihypertensive drugs, with more favorable medications now available for use in clinical practice.1 However, α-blockers have remained first-line agents in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH), producing rapid and sustained symptomatic relief irrespective of prostate size.2 The American Urological Association recommends α-blockers as safe and efficacious pharmacological treatment options for patients suffering from LUTS/BPH.3,4

Alpha1-receptors are abundant in the smooth muscle of the prostate and bladder, and α1-blockers produce a reduction in smooth muscle tone.5 Of the three α-blocker subtypes (α1A, α1B, and α1D), α1A is considered to be the major regulator of smooth muscle tone in the prostate and bladder neck.6,7 In contrast, the α1B subtype regulates blood pressure via arterial smooth muscle relaxation,7 while the α1D subtype is associated with relaxation of the bladder muscle as well as innervation of the sacral spinal cord.7,8

The currently available α1-blockers (alfuzosin, doxazosin, silodosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin) differ in their safety profiles but share similar efficacy.4,9 Older α1-blockers (doxazosin and terazosin), which are used to treat both hypertension and LUTS/BPH, are associated with a greater incidence of symptomatic hypotension while silodosin is associated with a higher prevalence of anejaculation ascribed to its selectivity for the α1A adrenergic receptor at the seminal vesicle and vas deferens.4,911 The orthostatic hypotension by α1-blocker was not frequently but diversely occurred, although the patient took the very low dosage of the medication, which had highly uroselectivity.As such, the concept of a uroselective α1A adrenergic receptor antagonist has been proposed to reflect the ratio of beneficial urinary effects versus cardiovascular adverse effects such as orthostatic hypotension. Alfuzosin, a novel uroselective antagonist devoid of cardiovascular adverse effects, have been successfully developed in recent years. It is presently available in three formulations: immediate-release alfuzosin 2.5 mg taken three times a day,12 sustained-release alfuzosin 5 mg taken twice a day,13 and prolonged-release alfuzosin 10 mg taken once a day.14

As early as 2000 years, the cardiovascular safety of alfuzosin 10 mg had never been investigated in patients aged older than 50 years.15 In the current study, 335 patients were recruited for assessment in daily clinical practice, and it was found that antihypertensive comedication does not affect its cardiovascular tolerability when taken once daily. This more favorable safety profile is attributed to the pharmacokinetic properties of the 10 mg formulation because the time to peak plasma concentration is 9 hours versus1 hour for alfuzosin 2.5 mg and 3 hours for alfuzosin 5 mg, as reviewed in Oelke et al.16 Therefore, this novel formulation implied the uroselectivity of alfuzosin 10 mg, which is clinically effective in the treatment of LUTS without adverse cardiovascular events.

Disclosure

The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work.


References

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Oelke M, Bachmann A, Descazeaud A, et al. EAU guidelines on the treatment and follow-up of non-neurogenic male lower urinary tract symptoms including benign prostatic obstruction. Eur Urol. 2013;64:118–140.

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McVary KT, Roehrborn CG, Avins AL, et al. Update on AUA guideline on the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Urol. 2011;185:1793–1803.

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AUA Practice Guidelines Committee. AUA guideline on management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (2003). Chapter 1: Diagnosis and treatment recommendations. J Urol. 2003;170:530–547.

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Hatano A, Takahashi H, Tamaki M, et al. Pharmacological evidence of distinct alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes mediating the contraction of human prostatic urethra and peripheral artery. Br J Pharmacol. 1994;113:723–728.

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Chapple CR. A comparison of varying alpha-blockers and other pharmacotherapy options for lower urinary tract symptoms. Rev Urol. 2005;7 Suppl 4:S22–S30.

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Schwinn DA, Michelotti GA. Alpha1-adrenergic receptors in the lower urinary tract and vascular bed: potential role for the alpha1d subtype in filling symptoms and effects of ageing on vascular expression. BJU Int. 2000;85 Suppl 2:6–11.

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Keating GM. Silodosin: a review of its use in the treatment of the signs and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Drugs. 2015;75:207–217.

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Hellstrom WJ, Sikka SC. Effects of acute treatment with tamsulosin versus alfuzosin on ejaculatory function in normal volunteers. J Urol. 2006;176:1529–1533.

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Andersson KE, Wyllie MG. Ejaculatory dysfunction: why all alpha-blockers are not equal. BJU Int. 2003;92:876–877.

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Hofner K, Jonas U. Alfuzosin: a clinically uroselective alpha1-blocker. World J Urol. 2002;19:405–412.

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Andersson KE. The concept of uroselectivity. Eur Urol. 1998;33 Suppl 2:7–11.

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McKeage K, Plosker GL. Alfuzosin: a review of the therapeutic use of the prolonged-release formulation given once daily in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Drugs. 2002;62:633–653.

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van Kerrebroeck P, Jardin A, Laval KU, et al. Efficacy and safety of a new prolonged release formulation of alfuzosin 10 mg once daily versus alfuzosin 2.5 mg thrice daily and placebo in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. ALFORTI Study Group. Eur Urol. 2000;37:306–313.

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Oelke M, Gericke A, Michel MC. Cardiovascular and ocular safety of alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists in the treatment of male lower urinary tract symptoms. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2014;13:1187–1197.

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