Personality features, dissociation, self-stigma, hope, and the complex treatment of depressive disorder
Received 12 July 2016
Accepted for publication 23 August 2016
Published 7 October 2016 Volume 2016:12 Pages 2539—2552
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Lucy Goodman
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Roger Pinder
Jan Prasko,1 Marie Ociskova,1 Ales Grambal,1 Zuzana Sigmundova,1 Petra Kasalova,1 Marketa Marackova,1 Michaela Holubova,1,2 Kristyna Vrbova,1 Klara Latalova,1 Milos Slepecky3
1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic; 3Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Nitra, Slovak Republic
Objective: Identifying the predictors of response to psychiatric and psychotherapeutic treatments may be useful for increasing treatment efficacy in pharmacoresistant depressive patients. The goal of this study was to examine the influence of dissociation, hope, personality trait, and selected demographic factors in treatment response of this group of patients.
Methods: Pharmacoresistant depressive inpatients were enrolled in the study. All patients completed Clinical Global Impression – both objective and subjective form (CGI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) at baseline and after 6 weeks of combined pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy (group cognitive-behavioral or group psychodynamic) treatment as an outcome measures. The Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMI), Dissociative Experience Scale (DES), Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (ADHS), and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) were completed at the start of the treatment with the intention to find the predictors of treatment efficacy.
Results: The study included 72 patients who were hospitalized for the pharmacoresistant major depression; 63 of them completed the study. The mean scores of BDI-II, BAI, subjCGI, and objCGI significantly decreased during the treatment. BDI-II relative change statistically significantly correlated with the total ISMI score, Discrimination Experience (ISMI subscale), and Harm Avoidance (TCI-R personality trait). According to stepwise regression, the strongest factors connected to BDI-II relative change were the duration of the disorder and Discrimination Experience (domain of ISMI). ObjCGI relative change significantly correlated with the level of dissociation (DES), the total ISMI score, hope in ADHS total score, and Self-Directedness (TCI-R). According to stepwise regression, the strongest factor connected to objCGI relative change was Discrimination Experience (domain of ISMI). The existence of comorbid personality disorder did not influence the treatment response.
Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, patients with pharmacoresistant depressive disorders, who have had more experience with discrimination because of their mental struggles, showed a poorer response to treatment.
Keywords: depressive disorder, cognitive-behavioral therapy, pharmacotherapy, psychodynamic therapy, treatment efficacy, dissociation, personality features, hope, self-stigma
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