Performance of Glow Fixation GoCheck Kids and 2WIN Photoscreeners and Retinomax to Uncover Hyperopia
Received 5 April 2020
Accepted for publication 7 July 2020
Published 10 August 2020 Volume 2020:14 Pages 2237—2244
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
Alexa H Levitt,1 Samuel J Martin,2 Robert W Arnold3
1Human and Organizational Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA; 2Research Department, Alaska Blind Child Discovery, Anchorage, AK, USA; 3Alaska Blind Child Discovery, Alaska Children’s EYE & Strabismus, Anchorage, AK, USA
Correspondence: Robert W Arnold
Alaska Blind Child Discovery, Alaska Children’s EYE & Strabismus, Anchorage, AK, USA
Background: A low-detail, glowing fixation device was added to GoCheck Kids (GCK) photoscreener in the hope of unmasking hyperopia and amblyopia risk factors (ARF).
Methods: Pediatric eye patients were screened by GCK and 2WIN photoscreeners, and Retinomax autorefractor before being compared to AAPOS ARFs.
Results: Screening was attempted by 131 children who then had school bus accommodation-relaxing skiascopy (SBA-RS) before cycloplegic examination. By 2013 AAPOS uniform guidelines, sensitivity/specificity for GCK was 87%/68%, for 2WIN 87%/71% and for Retinomax 79%/68%. Detection of amblyopia had sensitivity/specificity by GCK of 78%/63%, for 2WIN 79%/65% and for Retinomax 77%/68%. Inconclusive screens were seven for GCK, six for 2WIN and 13 for Retinomax. Mean hyperopia for GCK (+2.49± 0.74 D) was similar to cycloplegic refraction (+2.93± 0.72 D) and SBA-RS (+2.80± 0.82 D) while GCK was slightly more than Retinomax (+1.59± 0.93 D, p=0.13) but significantly more than 2WIN (+1.02± 0.49 D, p< 0.01).
Conclusion: GCK, 2WIN and Retinomax had similar validity detecting uniform amblyopia risk factors and amblyopia itself. The nondetailed glow fixation device allowed GCK to uncover substantial hyperopia while the detailed flashing fixation devices on 2WIN and Retinomax seemed to stimulate accommodation in some hyperopic children.
Clinical Trials Registry: NCT04297969. Data Access: http://www.abcd-vision.org/references/GCK%20glow%202WIN%20deidentify.pdf.
Précis: A glow fixation device on a smart phone photoscreener allowed robust detection of hyperopia.
Keywords: amblyopia risk factor, vision screening, photoscreener, hyperopia