Perceived control moderates the relationship between anxiety and in-hospital complications after ST segment elevation myocardial infarction
Mohannad Eid AbuRuz
Clinical Nursing Department, College of Nursing, Applied Science Private University, Amman, Jordan
Purpose: Anxiety is a common psychological response after acute myocardial infarction and might be associated with higher levels of in-hospital complications. Perceived control might moderate this relationship, but the effect of this method has not been checked in developing countries. Therefore, the objectives of this study were as follows: 1) to check if anxiety was an independent predictor of in-hospital complications after acute myocardial infarction; and 2) to check if perceived control moderates the relationship between anxiety and in-hospital complications after acute myocardial infarction.
Patients and methods: This was a prospective observational study among 500 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction recruited from three private hospitals in Amman, Jordan. Anxiety was measured by the Anxiety subscale of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and perceived control was measured by the Arabic version of the Control Attitude Scale-Revised.
Results: One hundred and forty patients (28%) developed at least one complication during hospitalization. Two hundred and fifty-five patients had low anxiety scores (≤7), and 245 patients had high anxiety scores (≥8). Patients with high levels of perceived control had lower levels of anxiety (mean [SD]; 5.3 [3.6] vs 14.1 [6.3], P<0.001) than those with low perceived control. In logistic regression, anxiety was an independent predictor of in-hospital complications after controlling for sociodemographic and clinical variables (odds ratio: 1.24, 95% CI, 1.08–1.41, P<0.01). Moreover, the interaction of anxiety and perceived control was a significant predictor of complications.
Conclusion: Anxiety was associated with increased risk of in-hospital complications after acute myocardial infarction independent of sociodemographic and clinical variables. Perceived control had a moderating effect for this association since the combination of low perceived control and high anxiety scores was associated with the greatest risk for complications. Supporting patients’ levels of perceived control can decrease complications, morbidities, and mortality after acute myocardial infarction.
Keywords: anxiety, perceived control, acute myocardial infarction, complications
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