Pathogenesis and management of alcoholic liver cirrhosis: a review
Yi-Wen Huang1,2, Sien-Sing Yang*1,3, Jia-Horng Kao*2,4,5
1Liver Center, Cathay General Hospital Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine and National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Faculty of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Hepatitis Research Center, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan *Sien-Sing Yang and Jia-Horng Kao contributed equally to the work
Abstract: Little is known about how alcohol causes liver disease and cirrhosis. The strongest evidence of the causality between alcohol and liver disease stems from epidemiological observations. Factors contributing to alcohol-induced fibrosis and cirrhosis include cytokines, oxidative stress, and toxic metabolites of ethanol. Patients with alcoholic cirrhosis generally have complications at diagnosis, and cirrhotic complications should be actively assessed because they are closely associated with subsequent morbidity as well as mortality. Abstinence is strictly required to prevent disease progression and is critical for eventual liver transplantation. In addition, nutritional therapy remains the mainstay of managing alcoholic cirrhosis.
Keywords: alcohol, cirrhosis, complication, treatment
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