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Oxidative stress and its downstream signaling in aging eyes

Authors Pinazo-Durán M, Gallego-Pinazo R, García-Medina JJ, Zanón-Moreno V, Nucci C, Dolz-Marco R, Martínez-Castillo S, Galbis-Estrada C, Marco-Ramírez C, López-Gálvez MI, Galarreta D, Díaz-Llópis M

Received 8 August 2013

Accepted for publication 11 October 2013

Published 11 April 2014 Volume 2014:9 Pages 637—652

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S52662

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

María Dolores Pinazo-Durán,1,* Roberto Gallego-Pinazo,2,* Jose Javier García-Medina,1,3,* Vicente Zanón-Moreno,1,4 Carlo Nucci,5 Rosa Dolz-Marco,2 Sebastián Martínez-Castillo,2 Carmen Galbis-Estrada,1 Carla Marco-Ramírez,1 Maria Isabel López-Gálvez,6,* David J Galarreta,6,* Manuel Díaz-Llópis4,*

1Ophthalmic Research Unit "Santiago Grisolía", Valencia, Spain; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Macula Section, The University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Spain; 3Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Reina Sofia, Murcia, Spain; 4Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Spain; 5University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; 6Instituto de Oftalmobiología Aplicada (IOBA), Valladolid, Spain

*Members of the Spanish Net of Ocular Pathology of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Madrid), OFTARED

Background: Oxidative stress (OS) and its biomarkers are the biochemical end point of the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the ability of the antioxidant (AOX) biological systems to fight against oxidative injury.
Objective: We reviewed the role of OS and its downstream signaling in aging eyes.
Methods: A search of the literature and current knowledge on the physiological and pathological mechanisms of OS were revisited in relation to the eyes and the aging process. Most prevalent ocular diseases have been analyzed herein in relation to OS and nutraceutic supplements, such as dry-eye disorders, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy.
Results: Clinical, biochemical, and molecular data from anterior and posterior eye segment diseases point to OS as the common pathogenic mechanism in the majority of these ocular disorders, many of which are pathologies causing visual impairment, blindness, and subsequent loss of life quality. Studies with nutraceutic supplements in aging eye-related pathologies have also been reviewed.
Conclusion: OS, nutritional status, and nutraceutic supplements have to be considered within the standards of care of older ophthalmologic patients. OS biomarkers and surrogate end points may help in managing the aging population with ocular diseases.

Keywords: oxidative stress, eyes, aging, ophthalmic diseases, antioxidants, epidemiology

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