Overview of the development of quinolone resistance in Salmonella species in China, 2005–2016
Authors Song Q, Xu Z, Gao H, Zhang D
Received 19 November 2017
Accepted for publication 22 December 2017
Published 26 February 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 267—274
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Justinn Cochran
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Professor Suresh Antony
Qifa Song,1 Zhaojun Xu,2 Hong Gao,1 Danyang Zhang1
1Department of Microbiology, Ningbo Municipal Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China; 2Intensive Care Unit, Ningbo No. 2 Hospital, Zhejiang, China
Purpose: Several factors contribute to the complexity of quinolone resistance in Salmonella, including >2000 different Salmonella serotypes, a variety of hosts for Salmonella, and wide use of quinolones in human beings and animals. We thus aimed to obtain an overview of the development of quinolone resistance and relevant molecular mechanisms of such a resistance in Salmonella species.
Materials and methods: A total of 1,776 Salmonella isolates were collected in Ningbo, China, between 2005 and 2016. Antimicrobial susceptibility to quinolone and relevant genetic mechanisms in these isolates were retrospectively analyzed.
Results: The ratio for ciprofloxacin (CIP) resistant:reduced CIP susceptible:CIP susceptible was 26:522:1,228. CIP resistance was found in nine of 51 serotypes: Derby, London, Kentucky, Indiana, Corvallis, Rissen, Hadar, Typhimurium, and Agona. Of 26 CIP-resistant isolates, all were concurrently resistant to ampicillin and 21 were also concurrently resistant to cefotaxime and produced extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). The minimal inhibitory concentration values were at three levels: 2–4 μg/mL (serotypes except for Kentucky and Indiana), 16 μg/mL (one Kentucky isolate), and >32 μg/mL (Indiana isolates). As with the three most common serotypes, Salmonella Typhi showed quickly increased prevalence of reduced CIP susceptibility in recent years, Salmonella Enteritidis remained at a high prevalence of reduced CIP susceptibility throughout the study period, and several isolates of Salmonella Typhimurium were resistant to CIP. Transferable plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance gene qnrB was only found in all CIP-resistant isolates. In contrast, gyrA mutations were often found in reduced CIP-susceptible isolates and were not necessarily found in all CIP-resistant isolates.
Conclusion: We conclude that in Salmonella, there exists a high prevalence of reduced CIP susceptibility and a low prevalence of CIP resistance, which focuses on several serotypes. Our study also demonstrates that, rather than gyrA mutations, qnrB is the most common indicator for CIP resistance.
Keywords: quinolone resistance, Salmonella species, ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella isolates, genetic determinant of quinolone resistance
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