Oseltamivir phosphate monotherapy ablates tumor neovascularization, growth, and metastasis in mouse model of human triple-negative breast adenocarcinoma
Authors Haxho F, Allison S, Alghamdi F, Brodhagen L, Kuta V, Abdulkhalek S, Neufeld RJ, Szewczuk M
Received 23 September 2014
Accepted for publication 10 October 2014
Published 9 December 2014 Volume 2014:6 Pages 191—203
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Professor Pranela Rameshwar
Fiona Haxho,1 Stephanie Allison,2 Farah Alghamdi,1,3 Lacey Brodhagen,1 Victoria EL Kuta,1 Samar Abdulkhalek,1,4 Ronald J Neufeld,2 Myron R Szewczuk1
1Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada; 3The King Fahd Armed Forces Hospital, Serology, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Molecular Genetics, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA
Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) lack the estrogen, progesterone, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-2 (HER2/neu) receptors. Patients with TNBC have typical high grading, more frequent relapses, and exhibit poorer outcomes or prognosis compared with the other subtypes of breast cancers. Currently, there are no targeted therapies that are effective for TNBC. Preclinical antitumor activity of oseltamivir phosphate (OP) therapy was investigated to identify its role in tumor neovascularization, growth, invasiveness, and long-term survival in a mouse model of human TNBC.
Methods: Live cell sialidase, water soluble tetrazolium, WST-1 cell viability, and immunohistochemistry assays were used to evaluate sialidase activity, cell survival, and the expression levels of tumor E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and host endothelial CD31+/PECAM-1 cells in archived paraffin-embedded TNBC MDA-MB-231 tumors grown in RAGxCγ double mutant mice.
Results: OP, anti-Neu1 antibodies, and matrix metalloproteinase-9-specific inhibitor blocked Neu1 activity associated with EGF-stimulated TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells. OP treatment of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells and their long-term tamoxifen-resistant clones reproducibly and dose-dependently reduced the sialidase activity associated with EGF-stimulated live cells and the cell viability after 72 hours of incubation. Combination of 1 µM cisplatin, 5-FU, paclitaxel, gemcitabine, or tamoxifen with OP dosages ≥300 µg/mL significantly reduced cell viability at 24, 48, and 72 hours when compared to the chemodrug alone. Heterotopic xenografts of MDA-MB-231 tumors developed robust and bloody tumor vascularization in RAG2xCγ double mutant mice. OP treatment at 30 mg/kg daily intraperitoneally reduced tumor vascularization and growth rate as well as significantly reduced tumor weight and spread to the lungs compared with the untreated cohorts. OP treatment at 50 mg/kg completely ablated tumor vascularization, tumor growth and spread to the lungs, with significant long-term survival at day 180 postimplantation, tumor shrinking, and no relapses after 56 days off-drug. OP 30 mg/kg cohort tumors expressed significantly reduced levels of human N-cadherins and host CD31+ endothelial cells with concomitant significant expression of E-cadherins compared to the untreated cohorts.
Conclusion: OP monotherapy may be the effective treatment therapy for TNBC.
Keywords: triple-negative breast cancer, chemoresistance
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