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Ocular myositis: diagnostic assessment, differential diagnoses, and therapy of a rare muscle disease — five new cases and review ||FREE PAPER||

Authors Benedikt GH Schoser

Published 15 June 2007 Volume 2007:1(1) Pages 37—42

Benedikt GH Schoser

Friedrich-Baur Institute, Department of Neurology, Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Germany

Abstract: Ocular myositis represents a subgroup within the idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome, formerly termed orbital pseudotumor. Ocular myositis describes a rare inflammatory disorder of single or multiple extraocular eye muscles. Unilateral or sequential bilateral subacute painful diplopia is the leading symptom of eye muscle myositis. There are at least two major forms, a limited oligosymptomatic ocular myositis (LOOM) with additional conjunctival injections only, and a severe exophthalmic ocular myositis (SEOM) with additional ptosis, chemosis, and proptosis. Eye muscle myositis is an idiopathic inflammation of the extraocular muscles in the absence of thyroid disease, ocular myasthenia gravis, and other systemic, particularly autoimmune mediated diseases, resembling CD4+ T cell-mediated dermatomyositis. Contrast-enhanced orbital magnetic resonance imaging most sensitively discloses swelling, signal hyperintensity, and enhancement of isolated eye muscles. Typically, corticosteroid treatment results in prompt improvement and remission within days to weeks in most patients. Compiled data of five patients and a review of the clinical pattern, diagnostic procedures, differential diagnoses, and current treatment options are given.

Keywords: ocular myositis; idiopathic orbital inflammation; painful diplopia; enlarged extraocular muscles

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