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Nonsurgical treatment of male infertility: specific and empiric therapy

Authors Marcello Cocuzza, Ashok Agarwal

Published 15 January 2008 Volume 2007:1(3) Pages 259—269


Marcello Cocuzza, Ashok Agarwal

Reproductive Research Center, Glickman Urological & Kidney Institute and Department of Obstetrics-Gynecology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA

Abstract: Management of male infertility is always a difficult task, and the pathologic process is often poorly understood. Even though modern assisted reproduction techniques (ART) can help overcome severe male factor infertility, the application of these methods in all infertile couples would definitely represent over-treatment. Several conditions can interfere with spermatogenesis and reduce sperm quality and production. A careful diagnostic work-up is necessary before any andrological treatment can be initiated so that adequate treatment options can be selected for individual patients. Most hormonal imbalances can be readily identified and successfully treated nonsurgically. However, the treatment of men with unexplained idiopathic infertility remains a challenge. In the absence of a correctable etiology, patients are managed with either empirical medical therapy or ART. Empiric medical therapy continues as a viable option. However, physicians and patients must understand that the success rates with any of the pharmacological therapies remain suboptimal.

Keywords: male infertility, oligospermia, drug therapy

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