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Neuroprogression: the hidden mechanism of depression

Authors Labra Ruiz NA, Santamaría del Ángel D, Juárez Olguín H, Lindoro Silva M

Received 22 June 2018

Accepted for publication 5 September 2018

Published 30 October 2018 Volume 2018:14 Pages 2837—2845

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S177973

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Andrew Yee

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Roger Pinder


Norma A Labra Ruiz,1 Daniel Santamaría del Ángel,1 Hugo Juárez Olguín,2 Miroslava Lindoro Silva2

1Laboratory of Neurosciences, Instituto Nacional de Pediatria (INP), Mexico City, Mexico; 2Laboratory of Pharmacology, Instituto Nacional de Pediatría (INP), and Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico

Abstract: For many years, depressive disorder (DD) was considered a transient and natural disease of people´s mood. Its etiology had been attributed mainly to biochemical alterations of the monoamines and their receptors. Nevertheless, its prevalence and considerable impact on the family and social environment of those afflicted by it have placed the disease as a global public health problem. Neuroprogression is the term used to describe the changes in several psychiatric conditions evidenced and observed in the clinical manifestations, biochemical markers, and cerebral structures of the patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), which frequently overlap with neurodegenerative disorders. DD is considered a potentially aggressive state of neuronal deterioration involving apoptosis, reduced neurogenesis, decreased neuronal plasticity, and increased immune response. Clinically, it encompasses a poor response to treatment and an increase in depressive episodes, both of which bring about vulnerability and decline of functions associated with structural changes in the brain. The interest of this work is to review the metabolic processes involved in the morphologic alterations in the limbic system reported in patients with MDD, as well as the neurologic bases of this complex pathology that include environmental stress, genetic vulnerability, alterations in the neurotransmission, and changes in the neuroplasticity, all of which today bring into limelight a mechanism of progressive neuronal damage.

Keywords: depressive disorder, monoamines, neuroprogression, neuroendocrine

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