Back to Journals » Vascular Health and Risk Management » Volume 17

Monitoring the Patient Following Radio-Cephalic Arteriovenous Fistula Creation: Current Perspectives

Authors Pirozzi N, Mancianti N, Scrivano J, Fazzari L, Pirozzi R, Tozzi M

Received 21 February 2021

Accepted for publication 19 March 2021

Published 29 March 2021 Volume 2021:17 Pages 111—121


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Konstantinos Tziomalos

Nicola Pirozzi,1 Nicoletta Mancianti,2 Jacopo Scrivano,1 Loredana Fazzari,1 Roberto Pirozzi,1 Matteo Tozzi3

1Interventional Nephrology Unit, Nephrology and Dialysis Department, CdC Nuova ITOR, Roma, Italy; 2Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplant Unit, University Hospital of Siena, Siena, Italy; 3Vascular Surgery, University of Insubria – Asst Settelaghi Varese, Varese, Italy

Correspondence: Nicola Pirozzi
Interventional Nephrology Unit, Nephrology and Dialysis Department, CdC Nuova ITOR, Via di Pietralata 162, Rome, 00158, Italy
Email [email protected]

Abstract: Autogenous radial–cephalic direct wrist arteriovenous fistula (RC-AVF) in the non-dominant arm is the gold standard for dialysis vascular access. However, the RC-AVF non-maturation rate is significant (≃ 40%) due to an increasingly elderly and comorbid population incidence. A detailed identification of the biological cascade underlying arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation could be the key to clinical research aimed at identify the group of patients at risk of primary AVF failure. Currently, careful post-operative monitoring remains the most crucial aspect to overcome the problem of impaired maturation. Up to 80% of patients with immature RC-AVF have problems potentially solvable with early endovascular or surgical correction. Physical examination by experienced practitioners in conjunction with duplex ultrasound examination (DUS) can identify physical signs of non-maturation, understand the underlying cause, and drive for a tailored early planning to treat the complication. New approaches for the early assessment of AVF maturation are under study. Techniques to promote RC-AVF maturation performed through the administration of pre-or peri-operative drugs have missed up to now to prove an efficacy in improving fistula success. The new techniques tested after surgery appear to hold future promise for improving fistula maturation.

Keywords: arteriovenous fistula maturation, hemodialysis, early failure, rule of six, vascular access

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]