Maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of phacomatoses: results from a Swedish register-based study
Authors Tettamanti G, Mogensen H, Nordgren A, Feychting M
Received 22 May 2019
Accepted for publication 17 July 2019
Published 3 September 2019 Volume 2019:11 Pages 793—800
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Professor Henrik Toft Sørensen
Giorgio Tettamanti,1 Hanna Mogensen,1 Ann Nordgren,2,3 Maria Feychting1
1Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Diagnostic Services, Karolinska University Hospital, Clinical Genetics, Stockholm, Sweden
Correspondence: Giorgio Tettamanti
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 171 77, Sweden
Background and aim: Phacomatoses are genetic syndromes often associated with an increased risk of a variety of malignant and benign neoplasms, including nervous system tumors. Little is known about the causes of de novo occurrences of phacomatoses. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and the occurrence of de novo phacomatoses.
Methods: All individuals born in Sweden between 1982 and 2014 with information on both biological parents were identified through the Medical Birth Register (MBR), n=3,132,056. The Swedish population-based health care registers were used to identify individuals with a phacomatosis and information on maternal smoking was extracted from the MBR. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on the risk of phacomatoses.
Results: In the study population, we identified 2074 individuals diagnosed with a phacomatosis, among which 75% were regarded as de novo occurrence. While no effect of heavy maternal smoking (10+ cigarettes/day) was observed for de novo neurofibromatosis, an increased risk was found for other phacomatoses excluding neurofibromatosis (OR =1.51, 95% CI 1.13–2.03). Indications of an increased risk for specific phacomatosis subtypes were observed for tuberous sclerosis (OR =1.39, 95% CI 0.91–2.14) and Sturge–Weber syndrome (OR =1.86, 95% CI 0.83–4.19). No association was observed for familial phacomatoses.
Conclusion: This is the first study examining the risk of de novo phacomatoses associated with heavy maternal smoking during pregnancy. Further studies are needed to confirm the associations observed and elucidate potential biological mechanisms.
Keywords: phacomatoses, neurofibromatoses, smoking, pregnancy, epidemiology
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