Major depressive disorders in chronic hemodialysis patients in Nazareth: identification and assessment
Zaher Armaly, Joseph Farah, Adel Jabbour, Bishara Bisharat, Amir Abd-El Qader, Shahira Saba, Maha Zaher, Elia El Haj, Munir Hamzi, Abdalla Bowirrat
The Nazareth Hospital, Hospital Affiliated with Galilee Medical School-Bar Ilan University, Zefat, Israel
Objective: Depression illnesses are commonly observed in hemodialysis (HD) patients, which can influence the quality of life of end-stage renal disease patients. We evaluate the prevalence and predictive risk factors of depression in the Arab population undergoing HD in Nazareth, Israel.
Methods: We conducted a prospective study that included 71 patients in the HD unit with a mean age of 61.9 ± 14.13 years who had undergone HD and 26 healthy control subjects with a mean age of 59.3 ± 7.3. Beck's Depression Inventory and Hamilton Depression Scale assessments were administered. Blood analysis for hematological and biochemical parameters was obtained. Diagnosis was made using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders scale to correlate psychological variables with clinical, hematological, and biochemical parameters. Statistical analysis was carried out using analysis of variance followed by Tukey post-hoc multiple comparison tests.
Results: The prevalence of depression was 43.7% in HD patients. Between HD patients and controls, cortisol values were 16.96 ± 0.5476 and 11.96 ± 1.116, respectively (P < 0.0001; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 2.416–6.825). Between depressed HD patients versus control subjects, cortisol values were 16.48 ± 0.72 and 11.96 ± 1.116, respectively (P = 0.0013; 95% CI: 1.878–7.184). Hematological and biochemical parameters were compared between depressed HD and nondepressed patients, but differences between the two groups were found to be insignificant (P > 0.05).
Conclusion: Our HD patients were severely depressed. Studies of glucocorticoid turnover activity such as cortisol, a potent chemical stress hormone, may be used as a model and marker for early diagnosis of depression among HD patients. The strong familial support system in Arabic traditions has failed to decrease depression among these patients.
Keywords: Beck Depression Inventory, cortisol, depression, hemodialysis
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