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Low density lipoprotein mimic nanoparticles composed of amphipathic hybrid peptides and lipids for tumor-targeted delivery of paclitaxel

Authors Qian J, Xu N, Zhou X, Shi K, Du Q, Yin X, Zhao Z

Received 9 May 2019

Accepted for publication 1 August 2019

Published 11 September 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 7431—7446

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S215080

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Lei Yang


Junyi Qian,1,2 Ningze Xu,1,2 Xu Zhou,1,2 Kaihong Shi,1,2 Qian Du,1,2 Xiaoxing Yin,1,2 Ziming Zhao1,2

1Department of Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou 221004, People’s Republic of China; 2Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou 221004, People’s Republic of China

Correspondence: Ziming Zhao; Xiaoxing Yin
Department of Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical University, 209 Tongshan Road, Xuzhou 221004, People’s Republic of China
Tel +86 516 8326 2139
Fax +86 516 8326 2257
Email zmzhao@xzhmu.edu.cn; yinxxgood@126.com

Background: Low density lipoprotein (LDL) has been regarded as a promising antitumor drug vehicle. However some problems, such as rare source, difficulty of large-scale production, and potential safety concerns, hinder its clinical application.
Purpose: The objective of this study is to develop a biomimetic LDL nanocarrier by replacing the native apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) with an artificial amphipathic peptide and demonstrate its antitumor efficacy.
Methods: The amphipathic hybrid peptide (termed as FPL) consisting of a lipid binding motif of apoB-100 (LBMapoB)-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-folic acid (FA) was synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR and circular dichroism. FPL decorated lipoprotein-mimic nanoparticles (termed as FPLM NPs) were prepared by a modified solvent emulsification method. Paclitaxel (PTX) was incorporated into NPs and its content was quantified by HPLC analysis. The morphology of NPs was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the particle size and zeta potential of NPs were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The colloidal stability of FPLM NPs was evaluated in PBS containing bovine serum albumin (BSA). In vitro release of PTX loaded FPLM NPs was evaluated using the dialysis method. Cellular uptake and cytotoxity assayswere evaluated on human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) and lung cancer cells (A549). Tumor inhibition in vivo was investigated in M109 tumor-bearing mice via tail vein injection of Taxol formulation and PTX loaded NPs.
Results: The composition of FPLM NPs, including cholesteryl oleate, glyceryl trioleate, cholesterol, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE), and FPL peptides, was optimized to be 5:1:1:3:10 (w/w). FPLM NPs had a spherical shape with a mean diameter of 83 nm and a negative charge (-12 mV). FPLM NPs with optimum formulation had good colloidal stability in BSA solution.The release of PTX from FPLM NPs was slow and sustained. The uptake of FPLM NPs was higher in folate receptor (FR) overexpressing tumor cells (HeLa cells) than in FR deficient tumor cells (A549 cells). The intracellular distribution indicated that FPLM NPs had the lysosome escape capacity. The internalization mechanism of FPLM NPs was involved with clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis and FR played a positive role in the internalization of FPLM NPs. The CCK-8 assay demonstrated that FPLM NPs exhibited notably better anti-tumor effect than Taxol formulation in vitro. Moreover, PTX loaded FPLM NPs produced very marked anti-tumor efficiency in M109 tumor-bearing mice in vivo.
Conclusion: FPLM NPs is a promising nanocarrier which can improve the therapeutic effect and reduce the side effects of antitumor drugs.

Keywords: LDL mimic nanoparticles, amphipathic peptide, folic acid, paclitaxel, tumor targeting

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