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Localization and upregulation of survivin in cancer health disparities: a clinical perspective

Authors Khan S, Ferguson Bennit H, Asuncion Valenzuela MM, Turay D, Diaz Osterman C, Moyron R, Esebanmen G, Ashok A, Wall N

Received 3 March 2015

Accepted for publication 21 April 2015

Published 9 July 2015 Volume 2015:9 Pages 57—67


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 5

Editor who approved publication: Dr Doris Benbrook

Salma Khan,1,2 Heather Ferguson Bennit,1,2 Malyn May Asuncion Valenzuela,1,2 David Turay,1,3 Carlos J Diaz Osterman,1,2 Ron B Moyron,1,2 Grace E Esebanmen,1,2 Arjun Ashok,1,2 Nathan R Wall1,2

1Department of Biochemistry, 2Center for Health Disparities and Molecular Medicine, 3Department of Anatomy, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA, USA

Abstract: Survivin is one of the most important members of the inhibitors of apoptosis protein family, as it is expressed in most human cancers but is absent in normal, differentiated tissues. Lending to its importance, survivin has proven associations with apoptosis and cell cycle control, and has more recently been shown to modulate the tumor microenvironment and immune evasion as a result of its extracellular localization. Upregulation of survivin has been found in many cancers including breast, prostate, pancreatic, and hematological malignancies, and it may prove to be associated with the advanced presentation, poorer prognosis, and lower survival rates observed in ethnically diverse populations.

Keywords: survivin, cancer, exosomes, health disparity

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